Embryogenesis and Fetal Period Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Embryogenesis and Fetal Period Deck (72):
1

neurulation

ectoderm thickens and becomes known as the neural place

2

what happens on day 22 in reference to the neural plate

it begins to fold inward and makes contact with four occpital somites and the first cervical somites

3

what day does the cranial neuropore close

24 or 25

4

what day does the caudal neuropore close

26 or 27

5

the fusion of the neural folds results in the formation of what ?

neural tube

6

neural crest cells

really important, lose attachment to neural tube and form a lot of things

7

what are some examples of neural crest derivatives

parasympathetic ganglia of 3,7, 9 and 10, sensory ganglia of central nervous sytem of 5, 7, 9 and 10 and the autonomic doral root ganglia

8

surface ectoderm gives rise to what ?

epidermis, hair, nails, cutaneous, mamary glands, anterior pituitary gland, enamel of teeth, internal ear, and lens of eye

9

mesoderm immediately laterally to the notochord form cylindrical bodies called ___________

paraxial mesoderm

10

mesoderm just laterally to the notochord forms_________

intermediate mesoderm

11

futherest lateral to the notochord forms _____-

lateral plate mesoderm

12

paraxial mesoder

axial skeleton, volutary musclulatur and part of the dermis

13

intermediate mesoderm

form the urinary system and parts of the genital system

14

lateral plate mesoderm

will split into two layers splachnic mesoderm (associated with endoderm) and somatopleuric mesoderm (associated with the ectoderm)

15

the paraxial mesoderm helps form the first ________-

somite on day 20

16

how many pairs of somites are there ?

37 pairs

17

the endoderm of the embryo contributes to what structure ______________

yolk sac

18

endoderm derivatives

epithelial lining of GI tract, allantois, epithelium of repiratory tract, bladder, urethra, tympanic cavity and auditory tube, parenchyma of thyroid, parathyroid, liver and pancreas, stroma cells of the tonsils and the thymus

19

when is the fetal period

9th week til birth

20

characteristics of weeks 9-12

liver is major site of erythropoeisis, and the external genitals can be distinguished male or female

21

weeks 13-16

sites of ossification are evident, eye movements and the eyes are facing forward

22

weeks 17-20

primary ovarian follicles are formed and testes are descending

23

weeks 21-25

period of weight gain, blink and startle reflexes, surfactant is beginning to be secreted into the lungs

24

weeks 26-29

lungs are capable of breathig, CNS is capable of breathing and body temperature, spleen is still making blood cells but by 28 weeks blood formation shifts to the bone marrow

25

weeks 30-34

pupillary light reflex is present, fat is still accumulating

26

weeks 35-38

finish period involves final preparations of tissues important to the outside world

27

for the first 12 weeks of developent what is the major blood producing organ

yolk sac

28

for weeks 12-30 what organ is the major blood producing organ and weeks 12-24

liver, spleen

29

by week 30 what is the major hemopoietic organ

bone marrow

30

what is amniocentesis ?

sampling of the amnioc fluid to test for genetic disorders (must pass through chorion and amnion to get the sample)

31

by the 4th week the somites begin to differentiate into ______________ and ___________-

sclerotome and dermomyotome

32

hemangioblast

give rise to blood vessels

33

vasculogenesis

formation of blood islands, denovo vessels

34

angiogenesis

sprouting from existing vessels

35

hemangiomas

tumor like collections of blood vessels typically on the face

36

epithlium derived from the mesoderm is

vascular endothelium

37

epithelium derived from the endoderm is

epithelium of structures derived from yolk sac (gut and airway)

38

epithlium derived from the ectoderm

epidermis and ependyma

39

benign tumors of mesoderm epithelium are

angiomas

40

malignant tumors of mesoderm epithelium are

sarcomas

41

benign tumors of endoderm epithelium are

pailoma or adenomas

42

malignant tumors of endoderm epithelium are

carcinomas

43

benign tumors of ectoderm epithelium are

papiloma and ademoas

44

malignant tumors of ectoderm epithelium are

carcinomas

45

connective tissue is derived from ?

mesoderm for torso and limps and neuroectoderm (head)

46

benign tumors of connective tissue mesoderm

fibroma, lipoma, chondroma, osteoma

47

malignanty tumors of connective tissue medoderm

sarcomas

48

benign tumors of muscle mesoderm

myomas

49

malignant tumors of muscle mesoderm

myosarcomas

50

what are the two types of paraxial mesoderm

sclerotome and dermomyotome

51

what does the sclerotome give rise to

skeleton and cartilage

52

what does the dermomyotome give rise to

skeletal muscles, dermis and connective tissues

53

expected date of confinement ( EDC)

measures corwn rump length, head measurements and femur length to determine age

54

gestation age

age from last menstruation!

55

last nomrla menstrual period

with this gestation takes 40 week

56

actual date of fertilization

with this measure it takes 38 weeks

57

what is the first trimester

all major systems are developed

58

second trimester

external anatomy, many birth defects can be detected

59

third trimester

fetus becomes viable

60

if alpha fetoprotein is elevated what happens

detects of embryonic body wall

61

if alpha fetoprotein is depressed what can result

downs syndrome and trisomy 18

62

surface ectoderm gives rise to

epidermis, hair,cutaneous and mammary glands, anterior pituitary gland, enamel of teeth, internal ear, and lens of the eye

63

what does paraxial mesoderm give rise to

sclerotome which gives rise to skeleton and cartilage
dermomyotome which gives rise to skeletal muscles, dermis and connective tissue

64

what does intermediate mesoderm give rise to

urogenital system and contributions to the reproductive system

65

what does the lateral plate mesoderm give rise to

somatic(parietal) layer gives rise to connective tissue of limbs and serious membranes
splanchnic (visceral) layer gives rise to connective tissue, smooth muscle of vercera, serious membranes, primordial heart, blood, spleen, and suprarenal cortex

66

what does the endoderm give rise to

epithelium of the GI tract, liver, pancrease, liver, urachus, trachea, bronchi, longs, pharynyx, and thyroid

67

what does the neural ectoderm give rise to

neural tube (CNS, retina, pineal gland, and posterior pituitary)
neural crest (all ganglia)

68

the myotome splits into what

epaxial (intrinsic back muscleS) and hypomeres (hypaxial)

69

epithelium is derived from what layers

all three

70

connective tissue is derived from what

neuroectoderm and mesoderm

71

muscle is derived from

mesoderm

72

nerve is derived from

neuroectoderm