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Flashcards in Development of the Heart Deck (61):
1

The ________is the first to develop and function within the developing fetus.

heart

2

Where does oxygenated blood to the fetus come from ?

placenta

3

Where do the cardiac precursor cells migrate into to form the primary heart field ?

splanchnic mesoderm

4

The heart initially consists of what types of cells ?

endothelium and splanchnic mesoderm

5

What are the two layers the splanchnic mesoderm develops into ?

myocardium and cardiac jelly

6

cells from the splanchnic mesoderm also migrate and give rise to what ?

epicardium

7

What are the three layers of the cardiac tube ?

epicardium, myocardium and endocardium

8

cardiac looping is complete by what day ?

day 28

9

The bulbus cordis helps give rise to what structures

trabeculated right ventricle, conus cordis (outflow tract), and truncus arteriosis

10

The ventricle gives rise to what

left and right ventricle

11

the atrium gives rise to

trabeculated right and left atria

12

the sinus venosus helps give rise to

smooth part of right atrium

13

The sinus venosus receives blood from

vitelline (yolk sac); umbilical (placenta) and common cardinal (embryo)

14

What happens during Week 5

there is a great venous shift to the right and the right venous horn increases in size and the left becomes unimportant

15

What does the right venous hour contribute to?

inferior vena cava

16

Between the conus cordis and the truncus the endocardial cushions are from

neural crest cells and serve to partition the truncus

17

between the atria and the ventricle the endocardial cushions are from

splanchnic mesoderm and partition the atria, ventricles and AV canals

18

what helps form the foramen ovale

septum primum

19

What type of tissue forms the AV valves

mesenchymal tissue

20

the primitive ventricle forms

most of the left ventricle and parts of the right and the interventricular septum

21

the bulbus cordis forms

most of the right ventricle

22

the truncus ateriosus forms

infundibulum (conus arteriousus) and aortic vestibule

23

What help partition the conus cordis and truncus arteriosus

neural crest cells

24

initially the pacemaker is located where

caudal left cardiac tube

25

Cells from what and the AV canal form the AV node and bundle branches

sinus venosus

26

what day does the heart beat show up

day 30

27

The ductus arteriosus is found in adults as

ligamentum ateriosus

28

The cardiac precursors cells arise from what ?

epiblast

29

The __________induces the cardiac precursor cells once they have migrated to form cardiac myoblasts

endoderm

30

coelomic epithelium help to form what

myocardium and conducting system

31

neural crest help form what

septa and media of great vessels

32

cells from the splanchnic mesoderm help give rise to what layer of the heart

epicardium

33

the first third of the bulbus cordis will form

trabeculated part of the right ventricle

34

distal 1/3 of bulbus cordis (truncus arteriosus)

roots and proximal portion of aorta and pulmonary artery

35

middle 1.3 of bulbus cordis (conus cordis)

will form the outflow tracts of both ventricles

36

What veins are obliterated at the 5th week of development ?

right umbilical, left vitelline, and later left common cardinal vein

37

what is the dividing line between the trabeculated part of the right atrium ?

crista terminalis

38

the endocardial cushoins from the bulbous cordis works to

partition the truncus

39

the endocardial cushions between the atria and ventricle work to

partition the atria, atrioventricular canals and interventricular septum

40

the gap that remains in the septum primum is called

ostium primum

41

perforations in the septum primum before the ostium primum closes is called what

ostium secundum

42

a second fold appears in front of the septum primum this is called the

septum secondum

43

the foramen ovale functions to

allow blood to pass from the right atrium to the left bypassing the lungs

44

how do the semilunar valves evolve

from swellings in the pulmonary and aortic channels and the involvement of neural crest cells

45

dextrocardia

heart is on the wrong side of the body

46

ectopia cordis

heart is on the outside of the body

47

sudden infant death syndrome

caused by abnormalities in the cardiac conducting system

48

atrial septal defects

can involve a persistent ostium secondum, common atrium, defect in endocardial cushions, defect involving sinus venosum or probe patency

49

ventricular septal defect

defects in muscular part usually resolve, the membranous part are more serious

50

cor triloculae biventriculae

absence of a atrial septum resulting in a 3 chambered heart

51

premature closure of the oval foramen

leads to hypertrophy of the right atrium and ventricle and hypotrophy of left chambers; patient typically dies shortly after birth

52

transposition of the great vessels

septum that divides the aorta and pulmonary trunk does NOT form properly

53

dextrocardia

heart tube bends t left side and the heart becomes displaced to the right side

54

tricuspid valve atresia

always have patency of the foramen ovale, ventricular septal defect and underdeveloped right ventricle and hypertrophy of left ventricle

55

ebstein anomaly

improper formation of the tricuspid valve where the valves partially fuse to the ventricular wall, right ventricle becomes atrialized by tricuspid regirgitation; indicated by cyanosis and heart failure ususally accompanied by ASD

56

hypoplasitc left heart syndrome

poorly developed left ventricle; must pass through ASD to the right atrium into the right ventricle and then through the patent ductus ateriosus into systemic circulation is fatal

57

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

affects organization and structure of cardiac muscle, mutation in beta myosin heavy chanin, cause of death in young atheletes

58

tetrology of fallot

pulmonary stenosis
right ventricular hypertrophy
overriding aorta
ventricular septal defect

59

tetrology of fallot results from

improper formation of conotruncal septum

60

pentrad of fallot

pulmonary stenosis
right ventricular hypertroph
overriding aorta
ventricular septal defect
atrical septal defect

61

persistent truncus ateriosus

conotruncal ridges do not fuse
accompanied by IV septal defect
truncus gets blood from both ventricles