Conditions Of The Face Flashcards Preview

Conditions (2nd year) > Conditions Of The Face > Flashcards

Flashcards in Conditions Of The Face Deck (52)
0

Temporalmanibular Joint Etiology

TMJ is a sliding hinge joint
Injury occurs when a blow to the mandible transmits force to condylar
Injuries may involve intracapsular bleeding, inflammation of ligament, meniscal displacement, subluxation/dislocation/#

1

Temporomanibular Joint S&Sx

Inability to open mouth (normal=40 mm)
Deviation of jaw to side of injury on opening & biting
Malocclusion, joint noise or inability to close mouth

2

Temporomanibular Joint Management

Ice to control swelling
Immobilize jaw w/ bandage
Refrain from opening mouth for 7-10 days
Refer to dentist

3

Zygomatic # S&Sx

Flat or depressed appearance of the cheek
Swelling & periorbital ecchymosis about the eye may occlude vision & hide damage of orbit
Double vision, parathesia/anathesia
Usually epitaxis (nose bleed)

4

Zygomatic # Management

Crushed ice pack over area to control swelling
No compression or pressure
Refer to MD
R/O concussion

5

Epitaxis Etiology

Common but 40% of adults require medical attention
Due to:
-picking nose
-facial trauma 2nd blunt facial impact of MVA
-mucosal hyperaemia 2nd to allergic or vitals rhinitis
-presence of foreign body

6

Epitaxis S&Sx

Originates from superficial blood vessels

7

Epitaxis Management

Apply pressure to nasal bone for 10-15 mins
Pt. mouth breathing & leaning forward
Ice can be applied to dorsum of nose & back of neck

8

Deviated Septum Etiology

Partition btwn R&L sides of the nose
May be congenital & asymptomatic
Often caused by nasal trauma
Leads to difficult breathing

9

Deviated Septum S&Sx

Consistent difference in airflow btwn 2 sides of the nose when one nostril is blocked
Pen light will help

10

Deviated Septum Management

Refer to MD for further evaluation
Surgery

11

Nasal # Etiology

Most common # bone in adult face
Persistent or profuse bleeding may indicate a complex nasal #

12

Zygomatic # S&Sx

Epitaxis is always present
Nose may look flattened & lose symmetry
Nasal airway may become obstructed w/bony fragments
# can extend to cranial region, loss of CSF
Crepitus over nasal bridge & ecchymosis under eye

13

Mouth Lacerations Etiology

Trauma can lead to lacerations of face, lips, tongue or internal buccal cavities

14

Mouth Lacerations S&Sx

Bleeding is often profuse
Lacerated tissue may appear swollen w/jagged edges

15

Mouth Lacerations Management

Apply direct pressure to stop bleeding
Clean w/saline or clean water
May require suturing if lip is punctured/involves the tongue
Not allowed to RTP until wound is healed

16

Loose Teeth Etiology

Direct trauma

17

Loose teeth S&Sx

Loosened tooth may be partially displaced, intruded (pushed into socket), extruded (partially out), luxated (pushed sideways)
Blood is usually involved

18

Loose teeth management

When tooth extruded or luxated the examiner should try to place the tooth back to normal position w/o force
Teeth which are intruded should be left alone or permanent damage may result
Emerg dentist ASAP

19

Fractured Tooth Etiology

Direct trauma
Mouth guards reduce fractures
R/O concussions & spinal injuries

20

Fractured Tooth S&Sx

# may occur through enamel, dentin, pulp or root of tooth
# to enamel causes no symptoms, can be smoothed by dentist to prevent injury to lips & oral cavity
# to dentin cause pain & increase sensitivity to cold & heat
# to pulp or root lead to severe pain & sensitivity

21

Fractured Tooth Management

Refer to dentist

22

What are some RED FLAGS when it comes to Ear conditions?

Bleeding/CSF from ear
Feeling of fullness in ear;vertigo
Bleeding/swelling behind ear (battle sign)
Foreign body in the ear which cannot be removed easily
Hematoma or swelling that removes the creases of outer ear
Popping or itching the ear
Tinnitus or hearing impairment
Pain when earlobe is pulled

23

External Ear Conditions Etiology

Auricular hematoma (cauliflower ear) caused by repeated blunt trauma that pulls cartilage away from perichondrium
Hematoma forms btwn perichondrium & cartilage of ear & compromises blood supply to cartilage
Common in wrestlers who do not wear head gear

24

External Ear Conditions S&Sx

Outer ear is red, puffy & swollen
If left untreated, hematoma forms fibrosis in overlying skin leading to necrosis of Auricular cartilage

25

External Ear Conditions Management

Icing
If swelling, refer to MD for draining
Wear protective head gear

26

Internal Ear Conditions Etiology

Blow to ear
Pressure changes (diving/scuba diving)
Infection (may damage the external auditory eardrum)

27

Internal Ear Conditions S&Sx

Intense pain in ear, feeling of fullness, nausea, tinnitus, dizziness or loss of hearing

28

Internal Ear Conditions Management

Elevated by MD
Most minor ruptures of eardrum heal spontaneously
Larger ruptures may require surgical repair

29

Otitis Externa Etiology

Bacterial infection that involves lining of external auditory canal
Higher prevalence among water sport athletes
Occurs in individual who fails to dry ear canals

30

Otitis Externa S&Sx

Pain in acute cases
Itching in chronic cases w/discomfort & pain 2nd
May/may not be a discharge of pus
Gentle pressure around auditory opening & pulling on the pinna causes increase pain
Left untreated, infection can spread to middle ear causing balance disturbances/hearing loss

31

Otitis Externa Management

Custom ear plugs
Ear drops that contain an acidifying agent, either aluminum acetate or vinegar
Homemade remedy

32

RED FLAGS for Eye Conditions

Visual disturbances or loss of vision
Blood in anterior chamber
Unequal pupils/bilateral dilated pupils
Irregular eye movement/failure to adjust to light
Severe ecchymosis & swelling (raccoon eyes)

33

Periorbital Ecchymosis Etiology

Direct trauma to external eye region
Area high vascularity & when impacted can produce capillary bleeding in tissue space

34

Periorbital Ecchymosis S&Sx

Significant swelling & hemorrhage in surrounding eyelids
Impact can lead to faulty vision

35

Periorbital Ecchymosis Management

Inspection for obvious abnormalities
Palpation of orbit for #
Pupillary response to light
Ice application
Referral to eye specialist to R/O # or injury to globe

36

Foreign Bodies Etiology

Dust/dirt is frequent occurrence

37

Foreign Bodies S&Sx

Intense pain & tearing
Individual may attempt to remove substance by rubbing eyes

38

Foreign Bodies Management

If body not embedded, should be removed
Inspect cornea for scratches, abrasions or lacerations

39

Sty Etiology

Infection of sebaceous gland & caused by bacteria
Improper/incomplete removal of eye make-up, use of out dated or infected, poor eyelid hygiene

40

Sty S&Sx

Red nodule that will progress into painful pustule
Painful to touch & may elicit a scratchy sensation on eyeball
Crusting of eyelid margins, burning in eye, blurred vision & mucous discharge

41

Sty Management

Warm, moist compass to the eye
Pustule doesn't improve within 2 days refer to MD

42

Subconjunctival Hemorrhage Etiology

Direct trauma
More common in individual w/ high BP

43

Subconjunctival Hemorrhage S&Sx

Several small capillaries rupture, making the white sclera of eye appear red, blotchy, inflamed

44

Subconjunctival Hemorrhage Management

Harmless condition requires no Rx & resolves spontaneously in 1-3 weeks
If blurred vision, pain, limited eye movement or blood in anterior chambers is present refer to ophthalmologist

45

Hemorrhage in Anterior Chamber Etiology

Hyphema usually results from blunt trauma caused by small ball, hockey puck/stick

46

Hemorrhage in Anterior Chamber S&Sx

Red tinge in anterior chamber within few hours blood begins to settle into anterior chamber giving eye presence of a meniscus

47

Hemorrhage in Anterior Chamber Management

Patch both eyes
Immediate referral
Activate EAP
Conditions require hospitalization, bed rest, bilateral patching of eye & sedation

48

Detached Retina Etiology

Damage to posterior segment of eye can occur w/ or w/o trauma
Detached retina occurs when fluid seeps into retinal break & separates the nerosensory retina from the retinal epithelium
Can take days or weeks following initial trauma

49

Detached Retina S&Sx

Results in (+) scotoma (blind spot) at edge of visual field
As detachment progress, individual frequently describes conductor ad a 'curtain over their eyes'

50

Detached Retina Management

Patch both eyes & immediate referral to an ophthalmologist b/c surgery is often necessary

51

Orbital Blowout # Etiology

Caused by blunt force to eye or impact force that drives the orbital contents posteriorly against orbital wall
Increase pressure is released to area of least resistance, typically inferior orbital floor