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Flashcards in Modalities Deck (36)
0

How does Ultrasound work?

Deep heating
Tissues w/ high collagen (more significant heating than skin/fat)
Works via vibrating waves
Depth of penetration depends on frequency head

1

What are the 2 types of ultrasound frequencies?

3mHz
1mHz

2

How deep does 3mHz penetrate?

Superficial, transmits <1-1.5 cm

3

How deep does 1mHz penetrate?

Deeper than 3mHz, up to 6cm deep
~<3 cm

4

How is ultrasound intensity measured?

W/cm squared

Tissue damage can occur if intensity is too high

5

What is the Treatment Length for Ultrasound?

~5-10mins

6

How should Ultrasound be applied?

Direct skin contact w/gel
In water, not touching skin, small areas with warm water

7

What are some indications for Ultrasound?

Superficial wound healing, deep tissue healing
Joint adhesions/contractures
Spasticity/muscle guarding
Bone healing

8

Contraindications for Ultrasound?

Infection
Stress #
Thrombophlebitis
Eyes, heart, skull, spine or genitals
Implanted pacemakers

9

Why is Electrotherapy used?

Decrease pain
Increase blood flow, ROM, muscle strength
Re-educate muscles

10

How long should Electrotherapy be applied for?

~10-15 mins

11

What is Pulse Duration for Electrotherapy?

Length of single pulse
Powerful muscle contractions generated w/a pulse duration of 300-500 microseconds

12

What is Frequency with regards to Electrotherapy?

Number of pulses per second
Low frequency (40 pps no relaxation occurs & max muscle contraction

13

What is Electrotherapy Amplitude?

Measure of force/intensity that drives current
Causes ions to move

14

How does TENS work?

Decrease acute & chronic pain
Duration of analgesia is unpredictable
Works by -> gate control theory or to stimulate release of endorphins

15

What are Indications of TENS

Decrease post traumatic pain
Decrease post-surgical pain
Increase analgesia

16

What are contraindications of TENS

Pacemaker
Pregnancy (abdominal &/or pelvic area)
Pain of unknown origin
No stimulation over transthoracic area
Discontinue if skin irritation
Precautions (decrease sensation, skin lesions)

17

What does NMES stand for?

neuromuscular electrical stimulation

18

What does NMES do?

Elicit muscle contraction of moderately increase intensity w/little patient discomfort
Biphasic currents w/duty cycle
Reduce edema, pain & muscle, spasm, delay muscle atrophy, maintain muscle size & strength
Re-education of muscles & increase blood flow to tissue

19

Indications for NMES?

Residual/chronic muscle spasm
Muscle strains
Cast immobilization/disuse atrophy
Pain

20

Contraindications of NMES?

Person w/pacemaker
Over heart/brain
Recent non-union #
Potential malignancies
Cautions: impaired sensations, skin lesions, decrease ROM, extensive torn tissue

21

Indications for Interferential Stimulation

Acute pain
Chronic pain
Pain that covers
Muscle spasm (by decrease pain)

22

Contraindications of Interferential Stimulation

Hx of implanted pacemaker
Heart disease
No Rx on transthoracic area
Stop use if skin irritation occurs
Precautions: impaired sensation, skin lesions

23

How does Cryotherapy work?

Leads to decreased:
Cell metabolism, inflammation, circulation, pain perception, muscle spasm, muscle force production, increase tissue stiffness

24

Indications of Cryotherapy

Acute/chronic pain
Acute/chronic muscle spasm
Superficial/1* burns
Neuralgia

25

Contraindications of Cryotherapy

Decrease cold sensitivity &/or hypersensitivity
Cold allergy/cold induced urticaria
Circulatory/sensory impairment
Raynauds, hypertension, nerve palsy, arthritis
Advanced diabetes, uncovered open wounds, lupus

26

What are the 3 types of cold application?

Re-usable cold packs
Ice massage
Ice immersion

27

When is ice immersion used?

Used to reduce temp quickly over entire surface of extremity
Used during inflammatory phase
Cold with pain, able to do ROM exercise

28

When is ice massage used?

Performed over small area & not for an acute injury
Used for performing ROM exercises

29

What is Cryokinetics?

Cold application to numb injured body part & graded progressive active exercises
Most effective form if Rx for ankle sprains

30

When is Thermotherapy used?

During the proliferative phase
Heat can;
Increase circulation & cellular metabolism
Produce analgesic or sedative effect
Assist in resolution of pain & muscle guarding spasms

31

Indications for Thermotherapy

Decrease swelling, edema
Reduce muscle spasm/guarding
Increase blood flow:
Increase ROM prior actively, resolve hematoma, facilitate tissue healing, relieve joint contractures

32

Contraindications for Thermotherapy

Acute inflammation/injury
Impaired/poor circulation/sensation, impaired thermal regulation
Advanced arthritis, thrombophlebitis
Malignancy/neoplasms

33

How do whirlpool tanks work?

Increase skin temp, reduces muscle spasm, pain & facilitate ROM exercises

34

How do Paraffin Baths

Provide head to contoured bony areas
Rx subacute/chronic RA, joint stiffness & decrease ROM

35

What is the Inverse 2 Law?

Distance between energy tissue doubles, intensity of energy decreases by 4