Flashcards in Modalities Deck (36)
How does Ultrasound work?
Tissues w/ high collagen (more significant heating than skin/fat)
Works via vibrating waves
Depth of penetration depends on frequency head
What are the 2 types of ultrasound frequencies?
How deep does 3mHz penetrate?
Superficial, transmits <1-1.5 cm
How deep does 1mHz penetrate?
Deeper than 3mHz, up to 6cm deep
How is ultrasound intensity measured?
Tissue damage can occur if intensity is too high
What is the Treatment Length for Ultrasound?
How should Ultrasound be applied?
Direct skin contact w/gel
In water, not touching skin, small areas with warm water
What are some indications for Ultrasound?
Superficial wound healing, deep tissue healing
Contraindications for Ultrasound?
Eyes, heart, skull, spine or genitals
Why is Electrotherapy used?
Increase blood flow, ROM, muscle strength
How long should Electrotherapy be applied for?
What is Pulse Duration for Electrotherapy?
Length of single pulse
Powerful muscle contractions generated w/a pulse duration of 300-500 microseconds
What is Frequency with regards to Electrotherapy?
Number of pulses per second
Low frequency (40 pps no relaxation occurs & max muscle contraction
What is Electrotherapy Amplitude?
Measure of force/intensity that drives current
Causes ions to move
How does TENS work?
Decrease acute & chronic pain
Duration of analgesia is unpredictable
Works by -> gate control theory or to stimulate release of endorphins
What are Indications of TENS
Decrease post traumatic pain
Decrease post-surgical pain
What are contraindications of TENS
Pregnancy (abdominal &/or pelvic area)
Pain of unknown origin
No stimulation over transthoracic area
Discontinue if skin irritation
Precautions (decrease sensation, skin lesions)
What does NMES stand for?
neuromuscular electrical stimulation
What does NMES do?
Elicit muscle contraction of moderately increase intensity w/little patient discomfort
Biphasic currents w/duty cycle
Reduce edema, pain & muscle, spasm, delay muscle atrophy, maintain muscle size & strength
Re-education of muscles & increase blood flow to tissue
Indications for NMES?
Residual/chronic muscle spasm
Cast immobilization/disuse atrophy
Contraindications of NMES?
Recent non-union #
Cautions: impaired sensations, skin lesions, decrease ROM, extensive torn tissue
Indications for Interferential Stimulation
Pain that covers
Muscle spasm (by decrease pain)
Contraindications of Interferential Stimulation
Hx of implanted pacemaker
No Rx on transthoracic area
Stop use if skin irritation occurs
Precautions: impaired sensation, skin lesions
How does Cryotherapy work?
Leads to decreased:
Cell metabolism, inflammation, circulation, pain perception, muscle spasm, muscle force production, increase tissue stiffness
Indications of Cryotherapy
Acute/chronic muscle spasm
Contraindications of Cryotherapy
Decrease cold sensitivity &/or hypersensitivity
Cold allergy/cold induced urticaria
Raynauds, hypertension, nerve palsy, arthritis
Advanced diabetes, uncovered open wounds, lupus
What are the 3 types of cold application?
Re-usable cold packs
When is ice immersion used?
Used to reduce temp quickly over entire surface of extremity
Used during inflammatory phase
Cold with pain, able to do ROM exercise
When is ice massage used?
Performed over small area & not for an acute injury
Used for performing ROM exercises
What is Cryokinetics?
Cold application to numb injured body part & graded progressive active exercises
Most effective form if Rx for ankle sprains
When is Thermotherapy used?
During the proliferative phase
Increase circulation & cellular metabolism
Produce analgesic or sedative effect
Assist in resolution of pain & muscle guarding spasms
Indications for Thermotherapy
Decrease swelling, edema
Reduce muscle spasm/guarding
Increase blood flow:
Increase ROM prior actively, resolve hematoma, facilitate tissue healing, relieve joint contractures
Contraindications for Thermotherapy
Impaired/poor circulation/sensation, impaired thermal regulation
Advanced arthritis, thrombophlebitis
How do whirlpool tanks work?
Increase skin temp, reduces muscle spasm, pain & facilitate ROM exercises
How do Paraffin Baths
Provide head to contoured bony areas
Rx subacute/chronic RA, joint stiffness & decrease ROM