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Flashcards in Conserving Species In The Wild Deck (21)
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What is in situ conservation?

The process of protecting an endangered plant or animal species in its natural habitat


What are multiple use zones?

Management of areas around that protected area


In 2014 how much terrestrial and in land water areas were covered by protected areas?

20.6 million km2


What is the CBD 2010 target for protected areas?

To have 17% of the worlds land area under some sort of protection

This is 2.2 million additional km2


Why is just increasing area coverage of protected areas not sufficient?

You need to know how effective the protected area is and what kind of protected area we are looking at


How can the effectiveness of protected areas be assessed?

Looking at change over more than 2 decades- this can be done through interviews and a time-series of data


What is the criteria for assessing protected areas management effectiveness? (PAME)

Adequacy of law enforcement
The management plan
Governance effectiveness
Threat monitoring
Securing boundaries


Why are protected areas useful tools?

More effective and more secure if you don’t know much about the species

Less costly

Can protect a network of other species

Natural selection and evolution continue


What is translocation?

Where we move plants and animals for conservation purposes from one site for release in another site


What is translocation success more likely for?

Native non-sensitive species

When habitat quality at the target site is high/increased

Areas in the core of the species range

Better for herbivores vs carnivores

Wild caught than captive

Early breeders with large clutches


What are the two types of translocation?

Population restoration

Conservation introduction


What is population restoration?

Conservation translocation to within the species indigenous range


What are the two types of population restoration?

Describe them

Reinforcement: intentional movement into an existing population

Reintroduction: intentional movement and release inside its indigenous range from which it disappeared


What is conservation introduction translocation?

Conservation translocation to outside an organisms indigenous range


What are the two types of conservation introduction?

Describe them both

Assisted colonisation: intentional movement and release outside its indigenous range to avoid extinction

Ecological replacement: intentional movement and release outside its indigenous range to perform a specific ecological function


What is the pro conservation introduction argument?

Retaining or restoring past community composition is no longer feasible


What is the anti conservation introduction argument?

The current understanding of invasions is inadequate to forecast negative consequences associated with species translocations


Give an example of when conservation introduction didn’t work

The Nike perch in lake Victoria in the 1950s and 60s

Contributed to the disappearance of nearly 200 endemic species

Also red squirrel in Newfoundland out competing red crossbill


What did population viability analysis show was the viable population in golden lion tamarin monkeys?

2000 individuals


Give an example of translocation in the UK

The Large Blue butterfly

Reintroduced from Sweden to 3 UK sites in 1983 and 1992

Four later introductions to distant sites


What are opportunity costs?

Where we need to compensate the costs of conserving land by giving money to the community, as they could use that land for commercial use