Control of ventilation & Pulmonary mechanics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Control of ventilation & Pulmonary mechanics Deck (102)
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1

The central chemoreceptors are stimulated by _______ H+; an increase in cerebral spinal fluid CO2 automatically leads to an ______ in H+.

increased; increase

2

______ drives normal respiration.

CO2

3

The peripheral chemoreceptors are stimulated by ______ PCO2, ______ pH, and/or _____ PaO2 (<60mmHg).

increased; decreased; decreased

4

The _______ nerve carries sensory impulses from the carotid bodies, and the _____ nerve carries sensory impulses from the aortic bodies and also from stretch receptors in the lung parenchyma.

glossopharyngeal nerve--> carotid bodies
vagus nerve---> aortic bodies and lung parenchyma

5

The glossopharyngeal nerve carries sensory impulses from the _______, and the vagus nerve carries sensory impulses from the _______ and also from stretch receptors in the _______.

The glossopharyngeal nerve carries sensory impulses from the carotid bodies, and the vagus nerve carries sensory impulses from the aortic bodies and also from stretch receptors in the lung parenchyma.

6

The diaphragm is the muscle of inspiration. ______ % of TV alone is all due to the diaphragm. The rest is from the _________ nerve.

50-75%; external intercostal

7

_______ are our built in ABG's.

chemoreceptors
-only kick in when PaO2 <60

8

Why is it BAD to give chronic O2 patients too much O2?

because they rely on their chemoreceptors--> their chemoreceptors kick in when PaO2 <60... we knock out this function when giving them O2

9

DRG stands for:

doral respiratory group

10

VRG stands for:

ventral respiratory group

11

DRG generates the basic rhythm of respiration, it is found in the medulla, and may be considered the ________.

inspiratory pacemaker

12

The VRG can influence BOTH _______ and ________.

inspiration and expiration (internal intercostals)
*probably comes into play when high levels of ventilation are required

13

The pneumotaxic center is located _________. The apneustic center is located ________.

pneumo: high in the pons
apneu: low in the pons

14

The ________ SHUTS OFF inspiration.

pneumotaxic
*apneustic center also has similar function

15

The ______ work together to control the RATE and DEPTH of inspiration.

pneumotaxic and apneustic centers

16

The smooth muscle of the bronchi and bronchioles has receptors that FIRE when STRETCHED, which reflexly tends to INHIBIT inspiration. This is called the _______.

Hering-Breuer reflex

17

In adults, the Hering-Breuer reflex does not become important until TV exceeds ____.

1.5L

18

In neonates the Hering-Breuer reflex is _______ and ______.

STRONG and RELEVANT
*protective mechanism for preventing excess lung inflation

19

In the Hering-Breuer reflex, the ______ nerve carries afferent (sensory) information.

vagus

20

Central chemoreceptors respond to _________.

hydrogen ions
*H+ concentration in CSF increases as PaCO2 increases and decreases as PaCO2 decreases--> normally CO2 drives ventilation

21

Peripheral chemoreceptors respond to 3 things???:

1) decreased PaO2 <60
2) increased H+ concentration
3) increased PaCO2

22

When the partial pressure of CO2 in CSF increases, the H+ and HCO3- ion concentrations increase immediately.... who's principle or law applies?

Le Chatliers---> derives from law of mass action---> want to achieve equilibrium

23

Ventilation and perfusion in the UPRIGHT, SPONT VENT, NON-INTUBATED person is BEST in the ______ lung.

DEPENDENT

24

The intrapleural space (potential space) is found between parietal pleura of internal chest wall and visceral pleura covering the lung. The intrapleural pressure is "negative" (subatmospheric) b/c the lungs recoil inward and the chest wall recoils outward--> when the inward and outward forces are equal this is called FRC. Which part is altered in the obese patient? In the patient with emphysema?

obese= chest wall
emphysema= lung
in both instances FRC is altered
~ 3L FRC is normal in the upright, spont breathing 70kg person

25

During inspiration intrapleural pressure becomes more _______. Air enters the lung because the intrapulmonary pressure is ______.

negative (subatmospheric--> can't actually have a negative pressure)

subatmospheric

26

The _______ couple the lungs to the chest wall.

pleural membranes

27

_______ pressure (pressure between the inside of the chest wall and lungs) is ALWAYS negative (subatmospheric) during normal tidal breathing.

intrapleural pressure

28

Intrapleural pressure becomes more ______ during inspiration and less _______ during expiration. Intrapulmonary pressure is ______ during inspiration and more ______ during expiration.

Intrapleural becomes more negative during inspiration and less negative during expiration.... intrapulmonary is negative during inspiration and positive during expiration

29

What are 2 scenarios when intrapleural pressure may become positive?

1) during forced expiration
2) expiratory effort against a closed glottis (valsalva)

30

Describe the alveoli size in inspiration and expiration in the UPRIGHT, SPONT VENT, NON-INTUBATED patient.

non-dependent alveoli started big and got bigger (so not much change overall); dependent alveoli started small and for bigger (so larger change= BEST ventilation)
*think of a hanging slinky in regards to alveoli