Flashcards in CoQ10 and Omegas Deck (94)
How many isoprene units are there in CoQ10?
4 C + a methyl branch
Functional group of CoQ10?
What is the oxidized and reduced form of CoQ10?
reduced: ubiquinol --> majority
Increase in serum CoQ10 requires supp with?
What is strongly lipophilic and mostly insoluble?
How is CoQ10 absorbed in SI?
slowly/incompletely using soluble passive diffusion
- absorption rate = 6 %
Conversion of ubiquinone --> ubiquinol occurs in?
enterocytes prior to lymphatic transport
What are the 3 enzymes that keep CoQ10 reduced?
1. NADH cytochrome reductase
2. NADH/PH oxidoreductase
3. NADPH CoQ reductase
CoQ10 in the liver is packaged into?
In plasma CoQ10 is carried by?
What formulations of CoQ10 are more bioavailable?
oil based solubilized (vs powder)
High dose of what vit interferes with CoQ10 absorption?
Does exogenous CoQ10 down-reg endogenous synthesis?
Tissues synthesize CoQ10 from?
farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) and tyrosine
FPP is the precursor of?
DPP (decarprenyl prophosphate)
Trysoine is the precursor of?
What is the fundamental building block of CoQ10?
What are the essential cofactors for CoQ10?
vitamin B6, iron, and magnesium
A missense mutation of the Coq2p gene causes a deficiency in what?
What type of cells hold the highest CoQ10 concentrations?
highly metabolically active (cardiac, skeletal m., kidney, liver)
50% of the body's CoQ10 is localized where?
inner mitochondrial membrane
What is the primary rolls of CoQ10?
- normal cellular respiration and ATP production
- intercellular antioxidant
What is CoQ10's co-antioxidant?
What regenerates the CoQ10 radical?
dhydrolipoic acid (DHLA) and thioredoxin reductase
CoQ10 intake can spare what vitamin?
What molecule functions as a potent gene regulator?
What molecules can be conjugated with glucoronide?
Why do CoQ10 levels decrease with age?
1. higher oxidative stress which uses more CoQ10
2. reduced enzymatic function
What organ is most susceptible to a CoQ10 deficiency?