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Nutritional Biochem 2 > Water > Flashcards

Flashcards in Water Deck (37)
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1

What portion of adult body water weight is found intracellularly?

2/3
-

2

Water is an excellent solvent for what?

ionic compounds and solutes such as glucose and AA's

3

Children have more water than adults in which compartment?

extracellular

4

Water weakens what forces?

electrostatic forces and hydrogen bonding between other polar molecules

5

Water is involved in what type of reactions?

hydrolytic (peptide hydrolysis)

6

Water is produced in the body by what?

oxidative metabolism of hydrogen-containing substrates
- 300 ml/day

7

In what 3 ways does water act as a carrier?

1. transports nutrients and removes wastes
2. allows exchanged between cells, interstitial fluid, and capillaries
3. maintains vascular volume and blood circulation

8

How does water act in thermogenesis?

1. waters large heat capacity helps limit body temp fluctuations
2. water has large capacity for heat vaporization
3. sweating and evaporation allows heat loss

9

How does water act as a lubricator?

forms lubricating fluid for joints, saliva, gastric, intestinal, genito-urinary, and airway mucus.

10

How does water act as a shock absorber?

Maintains cellular shape and allows imbibition

11

What important function does water have for the brain and fetus?

Forms CSF for brain and spinal cord protection and suspends fetus

12

What is activated with increase in internal body temp?

Activation of sweat glands

13

How many KJ of heat is lost by evaporation of 1 gram of water?

2.2 KJ

14

What is sweat compared to plasma or extracellular fluid?

Hypotonic

15

Intense sweating leads to greater water than electrolyte losses and results in what type of dehydration?

Hypertonic (fluid replacement is more important that salt!!)

16

The osmotic pressure of extracellular fluid increases when?

When water losses exceed water intake

17

Is ADH release or the hypothalamic thirst reflex triggered first?

ADH release (1% osmolarity increase)

18

What is the most important stimulus controlling thirst?

Osmoreceptor input

19

What is the cornerstone of clinical assessment of hydration status?

Urine and blood assays

20

High grades of urine color can also indicate what?

Gross hematuria or bilirubin excretion from jaundice

21

For hydration status, urine osmolarity is inferior to what?

Plasma

22

What is the most widely used hematological index of hydration?

plasma osmolarity
- greater than 300 mmol/Kg --> dehydration

23

What can affect bioelectrical imedance analysis?

- alcohol consumption
- diuretics
- menstrual cycle
- ilness

24

How can total body water be measured?

using deuterium oxide (stable hydrogen isotope)

25

What are the 3 types of dehydration?

1. isotonic - net salt and water loss is equal
2. hypertonic - water loss or excess salt
3. hypotonic - loss of salt or excess water

26

Mild dehydration (1-2%) can impair what?

cognitive functions and physical performance

27

Moderate dehydration (2-5%) can result in what?

- hyperthermia
- reduced SV, CO, BP, and bloof low
- fatigue

28

How does dehydration impair cognition?

underperfusion of brain and increased stress hormones

29

Sever dehydration leads to what?

- dizziness, lethargy, irritable
- confusion
- ortho hypotension
- tachycardia

30

What 3 factors make infants more vulnerable to fluid/electrolyte imbalance?

1. high surface-to-body-weight ratio
2. limited ability to secrete solutes and concentrate urine
3. low ability to express thirst and high metabolic rate