Flashcards in Diversity Of Life Deck (31)
What is biodiversity?
The variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part of; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems
What two taxonomic groups are the best described?
Plants and chordates
What are chordates and around how many species are there?
Animals with a backbone
How many species of plants are there?
What is the most species rich group and how many species are there?
Give an example of a new family that was recently discovered
Isopods- a type of crustacean
Why can’t we be more accurate at estimating species number?
1. Lack of morphological variation- different species may look exactly the same
2. Effort in looking- easier to find bigger species
3. Sampling in inaccessible habitats
What are ecosystem services?
How the ecosystem benefits society
What are the four main types of ecosystem services that are affected by biodiversity?
Supporting, provisioning, regulating and cultural
Give some examples of supporting ecosystem services
Nutrient cycles, soil formation and primary production of agriculture
Give some examples of provisioning ecosystem services
Food, freshwater, wood and fibre, fuel
It includes renewable resources
Give some examples of regulating ecosystem services
Climate, food and disease regulation and water purification
Give some examples of cultural ecosystem services
Aesthetic, spiritual, educational and recreational
What are the four constituents of well being that ecosystem services contribute to:
Security, basic material for good life, health and good social relations
How does biodiversity contribute to food security?
It contributes to genetic diversity for crop yield, quality, stress tolerance, pest/disease resistance and reduces the use of chemicals
Give an example of food security in a plant
The wild potato varieties- they have traits that are useful to be bred into crops e.g blight resistance
How many listed medicinal plants are there?
Who was the first person to classify biodiversity?
Who was the first person to use polynomial classification of species?
Who was the first person to use a hierarchy to classify species (binomial nomenclature)?
What do species inventories tell us?
The proportion of endangered flora/fauna
What is the estimated loss of species due to deforestation?
0.2-0.3% of forest species
What are the oldest known fossils from 3.5 billion years ago?
Cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae or eubacteria)
How did oxygen get into the atmosphere?
Through Cyanobacteria photosynthesising
When was earth formed?
4,600 million years ago
What time period do the first animal fossils indicate?
600 million years ago
What time period does the fossil record of biodiversity begin?
530 million years ago
When did the first insects evolve on the land?
350 million years ago
When were the first reptiles and birds on earth?
170 million years ago