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Flashcards in Diversity Of Life Deck (31)
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1

What is biodiversity?

The variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part of; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems

2

What two taxonomic groups are the best described?

Plants and chordates

3

What are chordates and around how many species are there?

Animals with a backbone
45,000

4

How many species of plants are there?

270,000

5

What is the most species rich group and how many species are there?

Insects
950,000

6

Give an example of a new family that was recently discovered

Isopods- a type of crustacean

7

Why can’t we be more accurate at estimating species number?

1. Lack of morphological variation- different species may look exactly the same
2. Effort in looking- easier to find bigger species
3. Sampling in inaccessible habitats

8

What are ecosystem services?

How the ecosystem benefits society

9

What are the four main types of ecosystem services that are affected by biodiversity?

Supporting, provisioning, regulating and cultural

10

Give some examples of supporting ecosystem services

Nutrient cycles, soil formation and primary production of agriculture

11

Give some examples of provisioning ecosystem services

Food, freshwater, wood and fibre, fuel
It includes renewable resources

12

Give some examples of regulating ecosystem services

Climate, food and disease regulation and water purification

13

Give some examples of cultural ecosystem services

Aesthetic, spiritual, educational and recreational

14

What are the four constituents of well being that ecosystem services contribute to:

Security, basic material for good life, health and good social relations

15

How does biodiversity contribute to food security?

It contributes to genetic diversity for crop yield, quality, stress tolerance, pest/disease resistance and reduces the use of chemicals

16

Give an example of food security in a plant

The wild potato varieties- they have traits that are useful to be bred into crops e.g blight resistance

17

How many listed medicinal plants are there?

20,000

18

Who was the first person to classify biodiversity?

Aristotle

19

Who was the first person to use polynomial classification of species?

Theophrastus

20

Who was the first person to use a hierarchy to classify species (binomial nomenclature)?

Linnaeus

21

What do species inventories tell us?

The proportion of endangered flora/fauna

22

What is the estimated loss of species due to deforestation?

0.2-0.3% of forest species

23

What are the oldest known fossils from 3.5 billion years ago?

Cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae or eubacteria)

24

How did oxygen get into the atmosphere?

Through Cyanobacteria photosynthesising

25

When was earth formed?

4,600 million years ago

26

What time period do the first animal fossils indicate?

600 million years ago
Pre-Cambrian

27

What time period does the fossil record of biodiversity begin?

530 million years ago
Cambrian period

28

When did the first insects evolve on the land?

350 million years ago
Carboniferous period

29

When were the first reptiles and birds on earth?

170 million years ago
Jurassic period

30

When did flowering plants evolve and when did reptiles become extinct?

145-65 million years ago
Cretaceous period