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Flashcards in Environmental Emergencies Deck (101)
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1

Distribution of Electrical Injuries

Young children
Adults

2

Severity of Electrical Injuries

Voltage
Duration
Type (AC, DC)
Current path through body
Environmental factors

3

Greatest Damage in the Body from Electrical Injuries

Nerves
Blood vessels
Muscle

4

Which wound site is often larger than the other in electrical injuries?

Exit wound site

5

Low Voltage AC Current Effects

Muscular tetany
Continuous grasping of source

6

High Voltage AC and DC Current Effects

Single violent muscular contraction
Throw victim from source
Increased risk of blunt/blast injury

7

Electrical Cardiac Changes in Low Voltage AC Current

V-fib

8

Electrical Cardiac Changes in High Voltage AC and DC Current

Asystole
Respiratory arrest

9

Physical Exam in Electrical Injuries

Primary survey
Secondary survey
ABC's
C-spine immobilization
2 large bore IVs

10

CNS Physical Exam Findings

Transient LOC
Agitation, confusion
Coma
Visual disturbances: pupils fixed and dilated or asymmetric

11

Spinal Cord Injuries from Electrical Injuries

Fractures
Ascending paralysis
Spinal cord syndromes

12

Peripheral Nerve Injuries from Electrical Injuries

Involve hand touching a power source

13

Cutaneous Wounds in Electrical Injuries

Entry/exit points
Degree of burns of entry/exit points

14

Treatment of Burns from Electrical Injuries

Cleansed and dressed with silver sulfadizine
Careful neuromuscular compromise and compartment syndrome

15

Oral Injuries with Electrical Injuries

Kids
Vascular injury to labial artery

16

What section of the body generates the greatest amount of heat when exposed to electrical current?

Long bones

17

Which areas have the greatest destruction in electrical injuries?

Deep tissue surrounding long bones

18

Treatment of Electrical Burns

ABCs
C-spine
Dysrhythmias
Aggressive fluid replacement
Labs
EKG
Watch electrolytes closely
Wound care
Myoglobinuria
Tetanus prophylaxis
Treat seizures
General surgeon consult
ENT consult (kids)
OB consult

19

Labs in Electrical Burns

Electrolytes
BUN/Creatinine
Creatine kinase
Serum and urine myoglobin (rhabdo)
CBC

20

Monitoring in Electrical Burns

CV monitoring
Development of compartment syndrome
I&O: 100+ mL/h
Rhabdomyolysis
Renal Failure

21

Types of Lightening Strikes

Direct strike
Side flash
Ground current
Step potential

22

What kind of current is lightening?

DC current

23

Effects of Lightening Strikes

Immediate cardiac arrest (sustained asystole)
Respiratory arrest

24

Minor Injuries Associated with Lightening Strikes

Stunned patient
Confusion, amnesia
Short term memory problems
Headache
Muscle pain
Parasthesias
Temporary visual or auditory problems

25

Other Signs or Symptoms of a Lightening Strike

Pupil dilation
Anisocoria
Ruptured TM
Fern-like erythematous skin marking

26

Treatment of Lightening Strikes

Aggressive resuscitation
ACLS and CPR
Cardiac monitoring, SAO2, BP
2 large bore IVs
High flow O2

27

Secondary Survey for Occult Injuries with Lightening Strikes

Cutaneous burns
Ocular involvement
Auditory involvement
Musculoskeletal fractures

28

Labs for Lightening Strikes

Electrolytes
BUN/Creatinine
Creatine kinase
Serum and urine myoglobin (rhabdo)
CBC

29

Treatment for Lightening Strikes

Labs
Tetanus prophylaxis
Moderate to severe: CCU
Mild: admit, monitor cardiac and neuro status

30

What is the 3rd most common cause of accidental death in the US?

Drowning