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Flashcards in Infectious Disease Deck (93)
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1

What does meningitis affect?

Arachnoid, subarachnoid space
CSF

2

Most Common Bacterial Culprits in Meningitis

Strep pneumo
N. meningitidis
H. influenza

3

Most Common Viral Culprits for Meningitis

Enteroviruses
HSV
HIV
West Nile
VZV
Mumps

4

Most Common Fungal Culprit for Meningitis

Cryptococcus

5

NonInfectious Etiology of Meningitis

Tumor
Trauma
Brain abscess
Subdural empyema
Pharmacologic reaction

6

Community Acquired Culprits of Meningitis

Strep pneumo
N. menigitidis
H. influenza
Listeria monocytogenes

7

Healthcare Acquired Culprits of Meningitis

Staph
Aerobic gram negative bacilli

8

Classic Triad of Meningitis

Fever
Nuchal rigidity
Change in mental status

9

Other Symptoms of Meningitis

Intense headache
Photophobia
Lethargy
N/V
Joint pain
Seizures
Non-blanching petechial rash (N. meningitidis)

10

Red Flags for Diagnosing CNS Infections in the Elderly

Behavioral changes
Personality changes
Seizures
Lack of other source of infection
Headache
Nuchal rigidity
Exposure to infected persons
Low threshold to do LP

11

Indications for Head CT Prior to LP

Immunocompromised
Hx of seizure 1 week prior
Abnormal level of consciousness
Hx of CNS disease
Papilledema
Focal neurologic deficit
Possible focal infection

12

Meningitis Work Up

Blood cultures
CBC
Chem 7
CSF: cell count, gram stain, culture, glucose, protein

13

Treatment of Meningitis

Rocephin as soon as LP complete
Admit to hospital

14

Normal CSF Values

Pressure: 70-180
Appearance: clear, colorless
Protein: 15-45 mg/100mL
Glucose: 50-80 mg/100mL
Cell count: 0-5 WBCs, no RBCs
Chloride: 110-125 mEq/L

15

Bacterial Meningitis in Pediatric Population

2 months-2 years

16

Clues of Meningitis in Infants

Irritability
Poor feeding
Paradoxical irritability

17

Most Common Etiologic Agents of Meningitis in Pediatrics

Strep pneumo
N. meningitidis
HIB (rare)
Neonates: gram negative and Group B strep

18

Primary prevention of Meningitis

S. penumoniae vaccine
HIB vaccine
Meningococcal vaccine

19

Define Encephalitis

Inflammation of the brain

20

Etiologic Agents for Encephalitis

HSV-1
HSV-2
West Nile
CMV
Mumps
EBV

21

Difference Between Encephalitis and Meningitis

Encephalitis has: Altered brain function
Personality changes
Paralysis
Hallucinations
Altered smell
Problems with speech

22

Symptoms of Encephalitis in Adults

Flu like symptoms
Severe HA
Fever
Altered consciousness
Confusion
Agitation
Personality changes
Seizures
Loss of sensation
Paralysis
Muscle weakness
Hallucination
Double vision
Perception of foul smells
Speech/hearing problems
LOC

23

Symptoms of Encephalitis in Children

Bulging fontanels
N/V
Body stiffness
Inconsolable crying
Paradoxical irritability
Poor feeding

24

Work Up of Encephalitis

Head CT and/or MRI
CBC
CMP
LP

25

Treatment of Encephalitis

Acyclovir q8h

26

Most Common Site of Septic Arthritis

Knee

27

Signs and Symptoms of Septic Arthritis

Acute or subacute onset of pain
Erythema
Swelling
Limited joint motion
+/- systemic symptoms

28

What should you send joint fluid for?

Crystals
Glucose
Cell count
Culture + sensitivity
R/O gonorrhea

29

Treatment of Septic Arthritis

High dose IV antibiotics

30

Signs and Symptoms of Bacteremia

Fever +/- chills
Rigors
Disorientation
Hypotension
Respiratory failure
Sepsis
Septic shock
Skin lesions