Flashcards in ESSAY EXAMPLES Deck (16)
Sucrose/ Sucrase - hydrolyses the disaccharide into glucose and fructose
couldn't form a ESC with lactose
Enzymes in DNA
DNA polymerase - condensation of nucleotides
DNA Helicase - breaks the H+ bonds in between DNA molecules
- similar to RNA polymerase but again, no ESC
bacteria Vibrium Cholerae releases protein toxin that opens chloride channels, altering the WP of the gut and causing diarrhoea and dehydration
Transport proteins examples
NA+ gated channels - sodium passes into the axon in the formation of an action potential
Glucose channel in liver - glucose passes through for glycogenesis
Structural protein example
Keratin - flexible, strong, rope like proteins for claws (predation) and hair (camouflage)
Proteins for movement
actin myosin bridges, sliding filament theory for sarcomere contraction - used for vasoconstriction/ dilation
insulin - triggers phosphorylase enzyme for glycogenesis (glucose into glycogen) when blood sugar is too high- hyperglycaemia
What happens to non digested biomass?
it is egested - and broken down by saprobiotic nutrition
How many molecules of ATP are released per glucose in oxidative phosphorylation?
What causes the amount of biomass to decrease at each trophic level?
loss of energy through excretion, respiration and movement
example of a nitrogen fixing bacteria
Rhizobium - in the root nodules of leguminous plants
How does water enter the xylem at the root?
ions pumped in to decrease WP, water moves in by osmosis
What is the affect of increased CO2 conc on chemoreceptors in the carotid arteries and aorta?
pH is reduced
increase frequency of impulses to the cardio acceleratory centre in the medulla of the brain
increase in sympathetic nerve impulse
what is one impact of global warming
flooding causes increased salination of soil - selection pressure favours xerophytic plants
2 examples of external factors that could alter m=base sequence
estrogenic chemicals in food packaging