A cell or organism that has a pair of homologous chromosomes
What is a gene?
A sequence/section of DNA that codes for a particular protein
A version of a gene
What is a Genotype?
The combination of alleles within an organism
What is a phenotype?
The physical expression of a genotype
What does it mean if an allele is dominant?
An allele that is always expressed
What is a recessive allele?
It is only expressed when homozygous
What results from co dominance?
Both alleles are expressed in the phenotype
What is the locus?
The position of a gene on a chromosome
What is dihybrid inheritance?
Inheritance of 2 characteristics controlled by separate genes
What is the expected phenotypic ratio of the F2 generation?
What is monohybrid inheritance?
Inheritance of characteristics controlled by a single gene
What percentage of a F1 generation would be heterozygous?
What is the expected retail of genotypes in the F2 generation?
What would be the expected percentage of different phenotypes in the F2 generation?
3:1 (75% to 25%)
What is epistasis?
An interaction between genes where the expression of one gene suppresses the expression of another gene
What is an autosome?
Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome eg) 44 autosomes
How are autosomes linked?
If they are on the same autosome they will stay together during independent segregation - meaning they will be inherited together
How does autosomal linkage affect phenotypic ratios?
Because they are inherited together more offspring have the same phenotype as their parents
What else can affect autosomal linkage?
A group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
All the organisms of a single species in one place at the same time
All organisms in one place in one time
All the alleles present in a population
How common the allele is
Change in allele frequencies over time
Differential reproductive success
Organisms with a phenotype better adapted to their environment have a selective advantage, more likely to survive breed and pass on their genes
The formation of a new species
What are the predictions of Hardy-Weinberg principles?
The frequency of alleles of a gene will stay constant over generations
What assumptions are made for a Hardy Weinberg calculation?
No mutation takes place No selection Random mating Large population No genetic drift Population is genetically isolated