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Flashcards in Exam 1 - Study Guide Questions Deck (463):
1

what are the four basic tissues of the human body?

epithelial, muscle, neural and connective tissues

2

what is the function of each type of bone cell?

osteoblast - form bone, osteocyte - maintain or nurture bone, osteoclast - remodel bone

3

what is the primary constituent of the ground substance?

glycosaminoglycans

4

what types of glycosaminoglycans predominate in bone?

chondroitin sulfate, keratin sulfates and hyaluronic acid

5

what is the principle type of protein fiber in bone?

collagen type 1

6

what are the primary constituents of the bone

calcium, phosphate, citrate, carbonate ions

7

what is the most frequently described to deposit in bone

hydroxyapatite

8

bone is also the repository for what additional ions

sodium, magnesium, fluoride, lead, strontium and radium

9

what is Wolff's law as it pertains to bone

living tissue will respond to stressors such as anxiety, tension or pressure; bone is formed or absorbed in response to the same stressors

10

what three responses of living bone or stressed in class

it has the ability to heal, to remodel under stress or such as anxiety, tension or pressure and to age

11

bone is the embryological derivative of which specific connective tissues

mesenchyme and or cartilage

12

what is the name given to the pattern of ossification and mesenchyme

intramembranous ossification

13

what is the timing for the appearance of intramembranous ossification

from the second to third month in utero

14

what part of the axial skeleton is primarily formed by intramembranous ossification

the skull

15

what is the name given to the pattern of ossification and cartilage

endochondral ossification

16

what is the timing for the appearance of ossification in cartilage

the 2nd to 5th month in utero

17

which skull bones are ossified by both endochondral and intramembranous ossification

the mandible sphenoid temporal and occipital bones

18

which bone of the appendicular skeleton is formed by both endochondral and intramembranous ossification

the clavicle

19

what are the names given to the centers of ossification based on time of appearance

primary centers of ossification appear before birth secondary centers of ossification appear after birth

20

mature bone is described as being composed of what areas based on bone density

cortical or compact bone and spongy, cancellous or trabecular bone

21

what is the name of the outer fibro cellular covering of bone

the periosteum

22

what is the name given to the fibro cellular lining of bone

the endosteum

23

what are the primary sources of variation observed in bone

sexual dimorphism or gender variation, ontogenic variation or growth / age variation, graphic or population-based variation or ethnic origin, idios syncratic variation or individual variation

24

differences in the number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on male and female variation is identified as which type of variation

sexual dimorphism or gender variation

25

differences in the number or morphology of vertebra within the population based on age or developmental variation is identified as which type of variation

ontogenetic variation

26

differences in the number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on ethnicity or location variation is identified as which type of variation

Geographic variation or population-based variation

27

differences in the number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on uniqueness between individuals as identified as which type of variation

idiosyncratic variation

28

what are the six more commonly used classifications of normal bone

long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, sesamoid bones and paranasal sinus or pneumatic bones

29

what are the examples of short bones

most of the bones of the carpus and Tarsus

30

What is the characteristic of sesamoid bone

the bone develops within a tendon

31

what are consistent examples of sesamoid bones

patella and pisiform

32

which classifications of bone are characteristic of the axial skeleton

flat bones, irregular bones and paranasal sinus or pneumatic bones

33

what are the examples of flat bones

the parietal bone and sternum

34

what are examples of irregular bone

the vertebra and innominate bones

35

what is characteristic of pneumatic bone

air spaces within the bone

36

what are examples of pneumatic bone

frontal ethmoid maxilla sphenoid and temporal

37

what bones contain paranasal sinuses

frontal, ethmoid, maxilla and sphenoid

38

what are the classifications given to abnormal bone stressed and spinal Anatomy

accessory and heterotopic bone

39

what is the name given to Bone formed from existing bone

accessory bone

40

what are examples of accessory bone

para articular processes and bony Spurs of vertebra

41

what is the name given to Bone formed in a non bone location

heterotopic bone

42

what are examples of hetero topic bone

calcific deposits in the pineal gland, heart, and ligaments

43

what are the four basic surface feature categories

facets, elevations, depressions, tunnels or passageways

44

when do the surface features of bone become prominent

during and after puberty

45

what are the types of osseous elevations

linear, rounded and sharp

46

what are the types of osseous linear elevations

the line, Ridge and crest

47

what are the types of rounded osseous elevations

tubercle, protuberance, trochanter, tuber or tuberosity and malleolus

48

what are the categories of sharp osseous elevations

spine and process

49

what are the categories of osseous depressions

linear and rounded depressions

50

what are the categories of osseous linear depressions

notch or incisure, Groove, Sulcus

51

what are the categories of rounded osseous depressions

the fovea and fossa

52

what are the names given to openings on the surface of bone

ostium or orifice and Hiatus

53

what is the definition of an osseous ostium

a round or oval opening on the surface of bone

54

what is the definition of an osseous hiatus

an irregular opening on the surface of bone

55

what are the names given to the osseous ostia which completely penetrate bone

foramen or canal

56

what is the name given to an ostium which does not completely penetrate through a region of bone but appears as a blind ended passageway

meatus

57

what are the categories of osseous facets

flat facet and rounded facets

58

what are the categories of rounded osseous facets

articular heads and articular condyles

59

how many bones from the typical adult appendicular skeleton

126 bones

60

how many bones form a typical adult axial skeleton

80 bones

61

what bones form the axial skeleton

the skull, hyoid, vertebral column, sternum, and ribs

62

what is the name given to the adult skull minus the mandible

the cranium

63

what are the names given to the top of the adult skull

the calvaria or calva

64

what are the categories of bone form in the typical adult skull

the neurocranium, the facial skeleton (splanchnocranium or visceral Cranium) and the auditory ossicles

65

what is the neurocranium

the bones that support and protect the brain

66

how many bones from the typical adult neurocranium

eight bones

67

what bones form the neurocranium of the typical adult skull

the frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, sphenoid, and ethmoid

68

how many bones form the facial skeleton (splanchnocranium or visceral skeleton)

14 bones

69

what is the facial skeleton

is the bones that support the face or front of the head

70

what bones form the facial skeleton

mandible, vomer, nasal, maxilla, lacrimal, inferior nasal Concha, Palatine, and zygomatic

71

by strict definition what is the splanchnocranium

the bones that support the face minus the mandible

72

what bones form the splanchnocranium

vomer, nasal, maxilla, lacrimal, inferior nasal Concha, Palatine, zygomatic

73

how many bones are present in the adult hyoid

one bone

74

what is the number of bones comprise in each region of the typical adult spinal column or vertebral column

seven cervical, twelve thoracic, and five lumbar vertebra, one sacrum and one coccyx

75

what is the name given to the pre sacral region of the typical adult vertebral column or spinal column

the spine

76

what is the total number of bones form in the typical adult spine

24 bones

77

what is the definition of spine as it pertains to the vertebral column

the Pre-sacral region of the vertebral column or spinal column

78

how many bones are present in the typical adult sternum

one bone

79

what regions are present along the typical adult sternum

the manubrium sterni, the Corpus Sterni and the xiphoid process

80

how many ribs are present in the typical adult skeleton

12 pair or 24 ribs

81

what is the number of vertebrae in a typical adult

26 segments

82

what constitutes the spine

the 24 presacral segments; cervical thoracic and lumbar vertebrae

83

how many segments United Forum the typical sacrum

five segments

84

how many segments United from the typical coccyx

four segments

85

what does the term cervical refer to

the region of the neck

86

what is the typical number of segments in the cervical region

7 segments

87

what does the term thoracic refer to

breastplate or chest; it referred to the armor bearing region of the

88

what other term is often used to identify the vertebral segments of the chest

the dorsal segments, the dorsal

89

what are the typical number of segments in the dorsal or thoracic region

12 segments

90

what does the term lumbar refer to

the loin; the region between the rib and the hip

91

what is the typical number of segments in the lumbar region

five segments

92

what does the term sacrum refer to

the holy bone or holy region

93

what does the term coccyx refer to

the cuckoo birds bill or cuckoo birds beak

94

what is the length of a typical male spinal column

about 70 CM or 28 inches

95

what is the length of a typical female spinal column

about 60 cm or 25 inches

96

what is the difference in length between the typical male and typical female spinal column

about three inches

97

what is the length of the male cervical

about 12 CM or five inches

98

what is the length of a male thoracic region

about 28 CM or 11 inches

99

what is the length of the male lumbar region

about 18 cm or 7 inches

100

what is the length of the male sacrum

about 12 CM or five inches

101

based on the numbers for individual regions of the vertebral column what is the length of the male spine

about 58 cm or 23 in

102

how does the vertebral column participate in the protection of neural tissues

the spinal cord and beginning pns are located within the vertebral segments

103

how does the vertebral column participate in protection of the viscera

ribs are attached to vertebrae to form the thorax thus protecting the heart and lungs

104

what parts of the body are supported by the vertebral column

the head, upper extremities, ribs, viscera, and pelvis

105

how does the vertebral column participate in skeletal formation

ribs are formed from the costal process of the embryonic vertebral template

106

what levels of the vertebral column specifically, date weight-bearing transfer

S1 through S3 at the auricular surface

107

distinguish between motion and locomotion

motion is movement without travel. Locomotion is movement to a new site or location

108

what is specifically responsible for shape and position of the human frame

comparative anterior versus posterior height of the vertebral body and compared of anterior versus posterior height of the intervertebral disc

109

what organs are specifically associated with the horizontal axis of the skull

the eye and the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear

110

how is the vertebral column in stabilization of visceral function

Integrity of the spinal column enhance is appropriate nerve system control of viscera

111

when does the embryonic disk form

second week in utero

112

when does gastrulation occur or a three-layered embryo form

third week in utero

113

invagination of ectoderm along the Primitive streak gives rise to what embryonic structure

notochord

114

what is the name given to the mesoderm that will give rise to the vertebral column

paraxial mesoderm

115

what does paraxial mesoderm give rise to that will form the vertebral column

somites

116

name the areas of cellular differentiation formed within the somite

sclerotome, myotome, and dermatome

117

what part of the somite will give rise to the vertebral column

sclerotome

118

list in order the names of the successive vertebral column's formed during development

membranous, cartilaginous, skeletal or osseous

119

migration of sclerotomes to surround the notochord forms what developmental feature

the perichordal blastema

120

the Perichordal blastema gives rise to what processes

neural processes and costal processes

121

cell proliferation within the perichordal blastema will result in what features

a loose cranial sclerotomite and a dense caudal scleratomite

122

what forms between the sclerotomite of a parachordal blastema

the intersclerotomal fissure (fissure of von Ebner)

123

the intersclerotomal fissure (fissure of von Ebner) gives rise to what developmental feature

the perichordal disc

124

the perichordal disc is the presumptive location of what adult feature

the intervertebral discs

125

what is the earliest embryonic feature that will identify the position of the adult intervertebral disc

the intersclerotomal fissure (fissure of von Ebner)

126

the union of a dense caudal sclerotomite and a loose cranial sclerotomite from adjacent perichordal blastema gives rise to what feature

the vertebral blastema

127

what vessel will be identified adjacent to the vertebral blastema

the segmental artery

128

when will cartilage first form in the membranous vertebral blastema

beginning in the sixth embryonic week

129

what is the name given to the replacement of mesoderm by cartilage

chondrification

130

chondrification is first identified in which region of the embryonic vertebral column

the cervical region

131

what are the names given to the center of chondrification within the vertebral blastema

Centrum Center, neural Arch Center, transverse process center

132

how many centers of chondrification typically appear in the vertebral blastema

six. Two for the Centrum, two for the neural Arch, two for each transverse process

133

what is the earliest time that centers of ossification appear in the cartilaginous vertebra

during the seventh embryonic week

134

ossification begins in which region of the embryonic vertebral column

the lower cervical-upper thoracic region

135

what is the ratio of primary to secondary centers of ossification for a typical vertebra

three primary Center to five secondary Center

136

what are the names of the primary centers of ossification for a typical vertebra

Centrum Center and neural Arch Center

137

how many primary centers of ossification appear in the typical vertebra

3 1 for the Centrum 2 for the neural arches

138

what is the classification of the joint forming between primary centers of ossification

cartilage synchondrosis or amphiarthrosis synchondrosis

139

what are the names of the synchondrosis forming between primary centers of ossification in the typical vertebra

neurocentral synchondrosis and neural arch synchondrosis

140

what are the names of the five secondary centers of ossification for a typical vertebra

tip of the transverse process, tip of the spinous process, epiphyseal plate centers

141

how many secondary centers of ossification appear in the typical vertebra

five. One for the tip of each transverse process, one for the tip of the spinous process, one for each epiphyseal plate

142

what are the names of the synchondroses formed between secondary centers of ossification and the rest of the typical vertebra

tip of the transverse process synchondrosis, tip of the spinous process synchondrosis, and epiphyseal ring synchondrosis

143

what is the range of a parents for secondary centers of ossification of a typical vertebra

during puberty, typically ages 11 to 16 years old

144

what are the three basic parts of a vertebra

the vertebral body, vertebral Arch, and the apophyseal regions

145

what is formed by the vertebral body and vertebral Arch

vertebral foramen

146

what is the general shape of the vertebral body at each region of the spine

cervical is rectangular, thoracic is triangular, lumbar is reniform

147

what is the name given to the compact bone at the superior and inferior surfaces of the vertebral body

Superior epiphyseal Rim, inferior epiphyseal rim

148

what is the name given to the cartilage found at the superior and inferior surface of the developing vertebral body

Superior epiphyseal plate, inferior epiphyseal plate

149

what are the names of the openings found around the margins of the vertebral body

nutrient foramina or vascular foramina

150

what large opening is usually observed at the back of the vertebral body

the basivertebral venous foramen

151

what is the name of the vessel entering the nutrient or vascular foramen

osseous artery

152

what is the name given to the large vessel exiting the back of the vertebral body

the basivertebral vein

153

what is the semi-circular region of bone attached to the back of the vertebral body called

the vertebral Arch

154

what is the name given to the anterior part of the vertebral Arch

the pedicle

155

what is the name given to the posterior part of the vertebral Arch

lamina

156

what is the name given to the intermediate part of the vertebral Arch where the transverse process and articular processes

the lamina - pedicle Junction

157

what is the name of the feature located at the upper and lower surfaces of the pedicle

the superior vertebral Notch (incisure) and the inferior vertebral notch (incisure)

158

what is the generic orientation of the pedicle at each region of the spine

cervical - posterior lateral, thoracic - posterior, slightly lateral, lumbar - posterior

159

all lamina are oriented in what direction

posterior and median

160

what is the name given to the overlap of Laminae seen on x-ray

shingling

161

what ligament will attach to the lamina

the ligamentum flavum

162

what is the name given to abnormal bone at the attachment site of the ligamentum flavum

para - articular process

163

what classification of bone will para - articular processes represent

accessory bone

164

what is the name given to the lamina - pedicle Junction at each region of the spine

cervical - articular pillar, thoracic and Lumbar - pars interarticularis

165

what is the name given to the junction of the vertebral Arch - spinous process on lateral x-ray

the spinolaminar Junction

166

what is the name given to the tubular bone growth regions of the vertebral Arch

the apophyseal regions

167

what names may be given to each apophysis of the spine

the transverse apophysis or transverse process, articular apophysis or articular process, spinous apophysis or spinous process

168

what is the generic orientation of the transverse process or transverse apophysis at each region of the spine

cervical - anterolateral, thoracic - posterolateral, lumbar - lateral

169

all non rib bearing vertebrae of the spine retain what equivalent feature

the costal element

170

what is the name given to the rounded elevation at the end of the transverse apophysis or transverse process

the transverse tubercle

171

what is the name given to the rounded elevation at the end of the transverse apophysis or transverse process

the transverse tubercle

172

what will cause the transverse process to alter its initial Direction in the cervical region

cervical spinal nerves are pulled forward and downward to form the cervical and brachial nerve plexuses thus remodeling the transverse process to accommodate their new position

173

what will cause the transverse process to alter its initial Direction in the thoracic region

the growth of the lungs remodel the shape of the ribs which in turn push the transverse processes back

174

what will the articular process support

the articular facet

175

what is the name given to the Joint formed between the articular facets of a vertebral couple

the zygapophysis

176

what is the name given to the Bone surface at the front of a zygapophysis

the superior articular facet

177

what is the name given to the Bone surface at the back of a zygapophysis

the inferior articular facet

178

what names are given to the part of the vertebrate which supports the front of the zygapophysis

the superior articular apophysis, the superior articular process, or the pre - zygapophysis

179

what names are given to the part of the vertebrate which supports the back of the zygapophysis

the inferior articular apophysis, the inferior articular process, or the post - zygapophysis

180

in the vertebral couple, the part of the vertebra which lies anterior to the zygapophysis is called the

pre - zygapophysis

181

in the vertebral couple the part of the vertebrate which lies posterior to the zygapophysis is called the

post - zygapophysis

182

what is the name given to the part of the vertebrate forming the pre zygapophysis

the superior articular process

183

what is the name given to the part of the vertebra forming the post- zygapophysis

the inferior articular process

184

what is the method of calculating the angle of a spinous process

calculate the angle formed between the undersurface of the spinous process and the horizontal plane

185

what is the name given to the normal overlap of spinous processes as seen on x-ray

imbrication

186

what is the name given to the rounded elevation at the tip of the spinous process

the spinous tubercle

187

what is the orientation of the spinous process at each region of the spine

cervical - slight angle inferiorly, thoracic - noticeable angle inferiorly, lumbar - no inferior angle

188

what will form the posterior boundary of a typical intervertebral foramen

the inferior articular process, the superior articular process, the capsular ligament, and the ligamentum flavum

189

what will form the superior boundary of a typical intervertebral foramen

the inferior vertebral notch

190

what will form the inferior boundary of a typical intervertebral foramen

the superior vertebral notch

191

what will form the anterior boundary of a typical intervertebral foramen

the vertebral body of the segment above, the vertebral body of the segment below, the intervertebral discs, and the posterior longitudinal ligament

192

what name is given to the opening located within the vertebral body - vertebral arch enclosure

the vertebral foramen

193

the union of all vertebral foramen are forms and apparent vertical cylinder called the

vertebral Canal or spinal canal

194

what neural structures will occupy the vertebral foramen until the level of L2

the spinal cord, the proximal part of the peripheral nervous system, and the meninges

195

what is the typical shape or outline of the vertebral foramen at each region of the spinal column

cervical - triangular, thoracic - oval, lumbar - triangular, sacrum - triangular

196

at what vertebral level will the spinal cord typically terminate

L1

197

at what vertebral level will the Dural Sac typically terminate

S2

198

what are the segmental arteries

the arteries whose branches Supply the vertebra or segment

199

identify all segmental arteries of the vertebral column

vertebral, ascending cervical, deep cervical, Superior intercostal, posterior intercostal, subcostal, Lumbar, Iliolumbar, lateral sacral, and median sacral

200

what are the segmental arteries of the cervical spine

the vertebral artery, the ascending cervical artery, and the Deep cervical artery

201

what are the segmental arteries of the thoracic spine

the Deep cervical artery, Superior intercostal artery, posterior intercostal artery, and subcostal artery

202

what are the segmental arteries of the lumbar spine

the lumbar arteries, iliolumbar artery, lateral sacral artery, and median sacral artery

203

what are the segmental arteries of the fifth lumbar vertebra

the iliolumbar artery, lateral sacral artery, and median sacral artery

204

what are the segmental arteries of the sacrum

the iliolumbar artery, lateral sacral artery, and median sacral artery

205

what segmental levels are supplied by the vertebral artery

C1 through C6

206

what signal levels are supplied by the a sending cervical artery

C1 through C6

207

what segmental levels are supplied by the Deep cervical artery

C7 through T1

208

what the segmental levels are supplied by the superior intercostal artery

T1 and T2

209

what segmental levels are supplied by the posterior intercostal artery

T3 through T 11

210

what segmental level are supplied by the subcostal artery

T12

211

what segmental levels are supplied by the lumbar arteries

L1 through L4

212

what segmental levels are supplied by the median sacral artery

L5, S1 through S5 and coccyx

213

what sentimental levels are supplied by the iliolumbar artery

L5, S1 through S5 and coccyx

214

what segmental levels are supplied by the lateral sacral artery

L5, S1 through S5 and coccyx

215

which vertebra has the greatest number of segmental arteries associated with it

L5

216

what are the segmental arteries for L5

iliolumbar artery, median sacral artery and lateral sacral artery

217

what branch of the segmental arteries supplies the vertebra and the paravertebral region

the dorsospinal artery

218

what artery is primarily observed in the distal part of the intervertebral foramen

spinal artery

219

which branch of the dorsospinal artery will penetrate the meninges to enter sub arachnoid space

spinal artery

220

which branches of the spinal artery Supply the contents of the epidural space

osseous arteries, anterior spinal canal artery, posterior spinal canal artery

221

what arteries are observed in the epidural space near the posterior longitudinal ligament

anterior spinal canal artery and plexus

222

what arteries are observed in the epidural space near the ligamentum flavum

posterior spinal canal arteries and plexus

223

which branches of the spinal artery Supply the contents of the subarachnoid space

anterior radicular artery, posterior auricular artery, anterior medullary feeder artery, posterior medullary feeder artery

224

which vessel will supply the ventral or anterior nerve rootlet and nerve root

anterior radicular artery

225

which vessel will supply the dorsal or posterior nerve rootlets, nerve root and nerve root ganglion

posterior radicular artery

226

which artery is now set to enlarge and form the medullary feeder artery

the radicular artery

227

what is the name given to the artery that lies in front of the spinal cord along its length

anterior spinal artery

228

the anterior spinal artery is a branch of which artery

vertebral artery

229

is the anterior spinal artery a single continuous artery along the spinal cord

no

230

as the anterior spinal artery continues along the spinal cord, which arteries unite along its length to give the appearance of a single continuous vessel

anterior medullary feeder arteries

231

the posterior spinal artery is a branch of which artery

the posterior inferior cerebellar artery

232

what is the position of the posterior spinal artery relative to the spinal cord

it lies in the posterolateral sulcus along the spinal cord

233

is the posterior spinal artery a single continuous artery along the spinal cord

no

234

as the posterior spinal artery continues along the spinal cord which arteries unite along its length to give the appearance of a single continuous facile

posterior medullary feeder arteries

235

what forms the arterial Vasa Corona

anterior spinal artery, posterior spinal arteries, and communicating arteries

236

what is the generic name given to the arteries that penetrate the spinal cord

intra medullary arteries

237

what are the intra medullary branches of the arterial vasa Corona

Pial perforating arteries and the central/ ventral /sulcal Perforating arteries

238

what artery gives off the ventral/central/sulcal Perforating arteries

the anterior spinal artery

239

what arterial Visa Corona branches Supply gray matter and most of the spinal cord

ventral/central/sulcal Perforating arteries

240

what intra medullary branches Supply about one-third of the spinal cord

pial Perforating arteries

241

what is the source for pial Perforating arteries

the pial plexus

242

what arteries form the pial plexus

the posterior spinal arteries and the communicating arteries

243

what arteries are responsible for supplementing the arterial Vasa Corona along the cord

anterior medullary feeders and posterior medullary feeders

244

what vessels drain the spinal cord

pial veins

245

what will pial veins drain into

Venous vasa Corona

246

Which vessels form the venous vasa Corona

anterior longitudinal veins, posterior longitudinal veins, and communicating veins

247

Which vessels will drain the venous Vasa Corona

anterior medullary veins, posterior medullary veins

248

Which vessels will drain the ventral or anterior nerve roots

anterior radicular nerves

249

Which vessels will drain the dorsal or posterior nerve roots

posterior radicular veins

250

what vessel will drain the dorsal or posterior nerve root ganglion

posterior radicular veins

251

what veins will lie in the subarachnoid space

pial veins, venous Vasa Corona, anterior longitudinal veins, posterior longitudinal veins, communicating veins, anterior medullary veins, posterior medullary veins, anterior radicular veins, posterior radicular veins

252

what veins are observed in the epidural space near the posterior longitudinal ligament

anterior internal vertebral venous plexus, basivertebral vein

253

what lumenal feature of the anterior internal vertebral venous plexus vessels May function like valves of typical veins

trabeculae

254

what veins are observed in the epidural space near the ligamentum flavum

posterior internal vertebral venous plexus

255

what venous vessels are identified with the intervertebral foramen

intervertebral veins

256

what is the unique feature of veins along the spinal canal

they like the bicuspid valve of typical veins

257

identify the meninges of the spinal cord

dura mater, arachnoid Mater, Pia Mater

258

identify the meninges of the spinal cord and the commonly accepted meaning of each

dura mater - tough mother, arachnoid Mater - Spider mother, Pia Mater - tender or delicate mother

259

name and locate each space formed between the osseous vertebral foramen and the spinal cord

epidural space - between the vertebral foramen and the dura mater, subdural space - between the dura mater and the arachnoid Mater, subarachnoid space - between the arachnoid Mater and the Pia Mater

260

what is the name given to the fluid within the epidural space

interstitial fluid

261

what are the neural contents of the epidural space

recurrent meningeal /sinuvertebral /sinus vertebral nerve

262

what ligaments are associated with the epidural space

posterior longitudinal ligament, ligamentum flavum, Hoffman /anterior Dural /meningovertebral ligaments

263

which of the blood vessels of the epidural space will be found near the vertebral body

anterior spinal canal artery and plexus, anterior internal vertebral venous plexus, basivertebral vein

264

which of the nerves of the epidural space will be found near the vertebral body

recurrent meningeal or sign of vertebral or sinus vertebral nerve

265

which of the ligaments of the epidural space will be found near the vertebral body

posterior longitudinal ligament and Hoffman/ anterior dural / meningovertebral ligaments

266

which of the blood vessels of the epidural space will be found near the lamina

posterior spinal canal artery and plexus, posterior internal vertebral venous plexus

267

which of the nerves of the epidural space will be found near the lamina

recurrent meningeal and sinus vertebral nerve

268

which of the ligaments of the epidural space will be found near the lamina

ligamentum flavum and Hofmann/ anterior dural ligaments

269

which meningeal space is now thought to be a potential space not an actual space

subdural space comma between the dura mater and the arachnoid Mater

270

which of the contents of the epidural space are more likely located near or around the posterior longitudinal ligament

anterior spinal canal artery and plexus, anterior internal vertebral venous plexus, basivertebral vein, recurrent meningeal nerve, anterior Dural ligaments

271

which of the contents of the epidural space will be found near the lamina

posterior spinal canal artery and plexus, posterior internal vertebral venous plexus, ligamentum flavum, recurrent meningioma nerve, anterior Dural ligament

272

what is the name given to the fluid present within the subdural space

serous fluid

273

what is the name given to the fluid of the subarachnoid space

cerebrospinal fluid

274

what ligaments may be present in the subarachnoid space

dentate ligament

275

what contents are the subarachnoid space are changed below the level C6

the arterial Vasa Corona consists of one anterior spinal artery, two posterior spinal arteries, and 3 communicating arteries

276

what is the name given to the lateral extension of Pia Mater along the spinal cord

dentate ligament

277

what is the unique feature of veins along the spinal canal

they lack the bicuspid valve of typical veins

278

in horizontal view what direction of the spinal cord tends to be the largest

transverse

279

what are the spinal cord enlargement locations in the name given to each

C3 through T1 - the cervical enlargement, T9 through T12 - the lumbar enlargement

280

where is the greatest transverse diameter of the spinal cord

C6

281

in which plane will the diameter of the spinal cord decrease from C2 down to T1

midsagittal or anterior posterior plane

282

what spinal nerves originate from the lumbar enlargement

L1 through S3 spinal nerves

283

what is the generic cord level of the origin - vertebral level combination for the lumbar enlargement

L1, L2 cord levels in T9 vertebra; L-3, L4 cord levels in T10 vertebra; L5 S1 cord levels in t11 vertebra; S2, S3 cord levels in T12 vertebra

284

what is the caudal end of the spinal cord called

conus medullaris

285

what spinal nerves originate from the conus medullaris

typically S4, S5, and Co 1

286

in which vertebral foramen will the conus medullaris typically be observed

L1

287

what is the name given to the nerve Roots below L1

cauda equina

288

what is the continuation of Pia Mater below the conus medullaris called

filum terminale internum

289

what is the location and name given to the area where all meninges first converge at the caudal part of the vertebral column

typically S2, the Dural cul-de-sac

290

neural tissue has been identified and what part of the filum terminale

proximal part of the filum terminale internum

291

what is the fate of the neural tissue identified a long of the filum terminale internum

it joins peripheral nerve roots of spinal nerves as high as L3 and as low as S4

292

what does the neural tissue associated with the filum terminale externum appear to innervate

lower Limbs and the external anal sphincter

293

the last arterial Vasa Corona creates what feature on angiogram

cruciate anastomosis

294

what is the name given to the condensation of meninges below S2

filum terminale externum

295

what is the name given to the caudal attachment of the meninges

coccygeal medullary vestige

296

what is the name given to the condition in which the conus medullaris is located below L1 and the filum terminale is thickened

tethered cord syndrome

297

what is the relationship between scoliosis and tethered cord syndrome

it is suggested that the column will change normal curvatures to mitigate damage to the spinal cord caused by a tethered cord

298

at the intervertebral foramen what is the relationship between spinal nerve number and vertebral number along the cervical spine

in the cervical spine, spinal nerves exit above the segment they are numbered after. C3 nerve exits above C3 or between C2 and C3

299

at the intervertebral foramen, what is the relationship between spinal nerve number and vertebral number along the thoracic and lumbar spine and the sacrum

in the thoracic and lumbar spine and for the sacrum, spinal nerves exit below the segment they are numbered after. T6 nerve exits below T6 or between T6 and t7

300

what is the relationship between rib number and vertebral numbers at the Costocentral joint

rib number always equates to same vertebral number at the costocentral joint, rib 3 articulates with T3 segment and also with the t2 segment only ribs 1, 11 and 12 typically join with a single segment

301

what is the relationship between spinal nerves, rib number, and vertebral number in a thoracic intervertebral foramen

the spinal nerve number relates to the upper segment number in the vertebral couple, the rib number relates to the lower segment number in the vertebral couple

302

what osseous modification is observed to the front of the anterior arch of C1

the anterior tubercle

303

what is observed on the back of the anterior arch of C1

the fovea dentist

304

what attaches behind the anterior arch of C1

the lateral Mass

305

what is the name of the rounded elevation on the medial aspect of the lateral mass of C1

tubercle for the transverse atlantal ligament

306

what is identified in the midline at the back of the posterior arch of C1

the posterior tubercle

307

what Superior surface modification of the posterior arch of C1 is present near the lateral Mass

groove or sulcus for the vertebral artery

308

what Superior surface modification is present near the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch of C1

the arcuate rim

309

what attaches to the arcuate rim of the posterior arch of Atlas into the superior articular process of the lateral mass of Atlas

a complete ponticulus posticus

310

based on the amount of bony Union between the superior articular process and the arcuate rim of C1 what structure will form

an incomplete ponticulus posticus or a complete ponticulus posticus

311

what names are given to the opening formed by the ponticulus posticus

arcuate foramen or retro articular canal

312

what is observed on the undersurface of the posterior arch of C1

the inferior vertebral notch

313

what is the name given to the anterior part of the transverse process of C1

the costal element

314

what is the name given to the posterior part of the transverse process of C1

the true transverse process

315

what is the distal most part of the transverse process of C1

the posterior tubercle

316

what unique vertebral body modification is characteristic of C2

the dens or odontoid process

317

what surfaces are present on the odontoid process of C2

facet for fovea dentis, Groove for transverse atlantal ligament, attachment sites for the alar ligaments, attachment site for the apical Dental ligament

318

which feature is identified on the anterior surface of the odontoid process of C2

facet for fovea dentis

319

what feature is identified on the posterior surface of the odontoid process of C2

Groove for transverse atlantal ligament

320

what feature is identified on the superolateral margins of the odontoid process of C2

attachment sites for the alar ligament

321

what feature is identified on the tip of the odontoid process of C2

attachment site for the apical Dental ligament

322

what feature is identified on the anterior surface of the vertebral body of C2

the longus colli muscle attachment

323

what feature is identified on the anterior surface of the inferior epiphyseal rim of C2

the anterior lip

324

what feature is identified on the posterior surface of the inferior epiphyseal rim of C2

the posterior lip

325

what features are present at the lateral margins of the inferior epiphyseal rim of C2

right and left lateral grooves

326

what feature is arise from the posterolateral margins of the vertebral body of C2

the pedicles

327

what lies on the upper surface of the pedicle of C2

the superior articular process

328

what is the location of the superior vertebral Notch of C2

on the lamina pedicle Junction

329

which feature is identified on the lower surface of the pedicle of C2

the inferior vertebral notch

330

what is the name given to the anterior part of the transverse process of C2

the costal element

331

what is the name given to the posterior part of the transverse process of C2

the true transverse process

332

what is the distal most part of the transverse process of C2

the posterior tubercle

333

What is the characteristic of parents of the C2 spinous process in humans

it is bifid

334

what are the modifications of the superior epiphyseal rim of a typical cervical

anterior Groove, posterior groove, right and left uncinate processes

335

what are the names of the lateral modifications of the superior epiphyseal rim of a typical cervical

uncinate process, unciform process, uncovertebral process, uncus, lateral lip

336

, what are the modifications of the inferior epiphyseal rim of a typical cervical

anterior lip, posterior lip, right and left lateral grooves

337

what attaches to the posterolateral margin and in the center of a typical cervical vertebral body

the pedicle

338

what bony feature is attached to the posterior end of the pedicle

the articular pillar

339

what is the name of the surface feature observed between the ends of the articular pillar

the groove or sulcus for the dorsal ramus of a cervical spinal nerve

340

what bony feature is attached to the posterior part of the articular pillar

the lamina

341

what ligament attaches to the lamina of a typical cervical

ligamentum flavum

342

ossification of the ligamentum flavum at the attachment site on the lamina will result in what feature

para - articular processes

343

list in order the osseous parts of the typical cervical vertebra transverse process beginning at the vertebral body

costal element, anterior tubercle, costotransverse bar, posterior tubercle, true transverse process

344

what is the name given to the superior margin of the cost of transverse bar

sulcus for the ventral primary ramus of a cervical spinal nerve

345

what is the name given to the modification of the anterior tubercle of the C6 transverse process

the Carotid tubercle

346

what surfaces are present on the superior epiphyseal rim of the vertebral body of C7

anterior Groove, posterior groove, right and left uncinate processes

347

what is the appearance of the inferior surface of the vertebral body of C7

typically flat, lacking anterior and posterior lips characteristic of the typical cervical

348

what are the osseous parts of the transverse process of C7

costal element, anterior tubercle, costotransverse bar, posterior tubercle, true transverse process

349

what are the features of the spinous process of C7

long, horizontal, non bifid

350

what is the outline of the vertebral body of T1 from Superior View

somewhat rectangular with curved anterior margins

351

what is the appearance of the superior surface of the vertebral body of T1

it is somewhat cup-shaped with elevations at the posterior and lateral margin

352

what is the appearance of the inferior surface of the vertebral body of T1

typically flat, lacking anterior and posterior lips characteristic of the cervical

353

what surfaces are present on the upper and lower margins of the T1 vertebral body

the right and left Superior costal facet and right and left inferior costal Demi facet

354

what is the direction of the transverse process at T1

the transverse process projects nearly straight out laterally

355

what is present on the transverse tubercle of T1

the transverse costal facet

356

what is the angulation of the spinous process of T1

the undersurface of the T1 spinous processes will be nearly horizontal

357

what features will allow discrimination between T2 through T4 and T5 through T8 segmental groups

the vertebral body, transverse process, articular process and spinous process

358

on cranial view, what is the outline of the vertebral body for the t2 through T4 group

the vertebral body will have bilaterally convex sides

359

on cranial view, what is the outline of the vertebral body for the T5 through T8 group

the left side of the vertebral body will be flattened, the right side convex

360

what is the name given to the left side appearance of the vertebral body of T5 through T8

the aortic impression

361

what part of the vertebral body is most influenced by the aorta at T5 through T8

the left side Superior and inferior epiphyseal rims

362

what synovial joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of a typical thoracic

the right and left Superior and the right and left inferior costal demifacets

363

what is the appearance and position of the lamina in a typical thoracic

the lamina is short, Broad and thick and lies next to the spinous process

364

what is present at the tip of the transverse process of a typical thoracic

the transverse tubercle

365

what is the distance between the transverse tubercles and the typical thoracic region

from T to each transverse diameter becomes shorter as the transverse processes angle more posterior

366

what is present on the transverse tubercle of a typical thoracic

the transverse costal facet

367

how did the transverse diameters of the articular processes compare in the t2 through T4 region

the superior articular process transverse diameter is greater than the inferior articular process transverse diameter for a given segment

368

how did the transverse diameters of the articular processes compare in the T5 through T8

the superior articular process transverse diameter is the same as or equal to the inferior articular process transverse diameter for a given segment

369

what name is given to the region between the superior and inferior articular processes in the typical thoracics

the pars interarticularis

370

what is the pars interarticularis

the region between the superior and inferior articular processes

371

what part of a vertebra arises laterally from the pars interarticularis

the transverse process

372

what part of the vertebra arises medially from the pars interarticularis

the lamina

373

what is the orientation of the spinous process of a typical thoracic

they slant backward and downward

374

what is the angulation of the spinous process of T2 through T4

the undersurface of T2 through T4 spinous processes will angle up to 40 degrees from the horizontal plane

375

what is the angulation of the spinous process of T5 through T8

the undersurface of T5 through T8 spinous processes will angle up to 60 degrees from the horizontal plane

376

which vertebrae will have a spinous process emulation of up to 40 degrees

T2 through T4

377

which vertebra will have a spinous process angulation up to 60 degrees

T5 through T8

378

what synovial joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of T9

right and left Superior costal demifacets, right and left inferior costal demifacets

379

which synovial joint surfaces may be absent from the vertebral body of T9

inferior costal demifacets

380

what is present on the transverse tubercle of T9

the transverse costal facet

381

what is the orientation of the spinous process of T9

posterior and slightly inferior, it will shorten and become more horizontal

382

what synovial joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of T10

the right and left Superior costal facet

383

which synovial joint surface is absent from the vertebral body of T10

inferior costal demifacet

384

what is the position and direction of the pedicle from the vertebral body at T10

the particle arises from the upper third of the vertebral body and projects posterior and slightly

385

what feature is very commonly observed on the lamina of T10

para - articular processes

386

what part of the transverse process may be absent on T10

the transverse costal facet

387

what is the orientation of a spinous process of T10

posterior and slightly inferior, it will shorten and become more horizontal

388

what synovial joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of t11

the right and left Superior costal facet

389

which synovial joint surface is absent from the vertebral body of T 11

inferior costal demifacet

390

what part of the transverse process is absent on t11

the transverse costal facet

391

what is the position of the spinous process of t11

posterior and horizontal along the undersurface

392

what synovial joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of T12

the right and left Superior costal facet

393

which synovial joint surface is absent from the vertebral body of T12

inferior costal demifacet

394

what is present of a transverse process region of T12

3 tubercles of variable size

395

which typical on T12 represents the transverse process

the lateral tubercle

396

which tubercle on T12 represents the mammillary process of the lumbars

the superior tubercle

397

which typical on T12 represents the accessory process of the lumbars

the inferior tubercle

398

what joint surface of the typical thoracic transverse process is absent on T12

the transverse costal facet

399

what is the curvature of the inferior articular facets of T12

they are slightly convex

400

what is the orientation of the spinous process of T12

posterior and horizontal

401

what is a generic shape of the typical lumbar vertebral body from the cranial View

Reniform or kidney-shaped

402

what is the name of the elevation near the origin of the lumbar transverse process

accessory process

403

what is the name of the lamina pedicle Junction of a typical lumbar vertebra

pars interarticularis

404

what is characteristic of the L1 through Alpha articular processes

the transverse diameter Superior articular processes of an L1 through out for Segment will be greater than the transverse diameter of the inferior articular processes of that same segment

405

what is the name given to the projection on lumbar Superior articular processes

mammillary process

406

what characteristic of the L1 throughout for pedicle may be used to differentiate it from the L5 segment be specific and complete as the differences on the segment from each group

on cranial view, the lateral surface of the pedicle is a parent on the AL one through L4 segment. At L5 the transverse process originates from the vertebral body, pedicle and lamina pedicle region

407

what is the generic Direction and length of the fifth lumbar transverse process

it is directed straight lateral and is the shortest of all lumbar transverse processes

408

what is the typical number of segments that unite to form the adult sacrum

five segments

409

what forms the median sacral crest

fused spinous processes and their spinous tubercles

410

what forms the intermediate sacral crest

fused articular processes and their facets

411

what features may be identified along the intermediate sacral crest

the mammillary process of S1 and the sacral cornu of S5

412

what does the sacral cornu represent

the inferior articular process and facet of S5

413

what is the name of the inferior opening of the sacral spinal canal

the sacral hiatus

414

what forms the lateral sacral crest

the fused transverse processes and transverse tubercles from S1 to S5

415

what is the sacral tuberosity

the enlarged transverse tubercle of S2

416

what feature is associated with the transverse tubercle of S5

the inferior and lateral sacral angle

417

from the anterior view of the intervertebral discs of sacrum will be replaced by what feature

transverse ridges

418

what feature is identified on the lateral surface of S1 through S3

auricular surface

419

what feature does the anterior surface of the superior epiphyseal rim of S1 form

the sacral promontory

420

what is the name given to the region of bone extending laterally from the s-1 vertebral body looking from the base View

sacral ala

421

what forms the sacral ala

the costal element and true transverse process

422

what is the typical number of segments that unite to form the adult coccyx

four segments

423

what bony features are present on the coccyx

all segments are represented by a vertebral body. In addition Co one has a coccygeal cornu and transverse process

424

what is the homologue of the superior articular process and facet in co1

coccygeal Cornu

425

what feature is present at the top of the manubrium sterni

jugular notch

426

what is the name given to the articular site at the superolateral margin of the manubrium sterni

clavicular notch

427

what names are given to the articular sites for the joint with the first and second rib

costal Notch one for the first rib costal cartilage, costal Notch two for the second rib costal cartilage

428

how many sternabrae for the Corpus Sterni

4 sternabrae

429

what surface feature on the Corpus store and I identifies the location of the old synchondroses

transverse lines

430

what articular sites for the costal cartilage of ribs will be identified on the Corpus Sterni

costal notches two through seven

431

what are the primary parts of the vertebral end of a typical rib

the head, neck, and tubercle

432

what names are given to the articular surfaces on the head of a typical rib based on location

Superior articular surface or facet and inferior articular surface or facet

433

what feature of the head of a rib separates the superior from inferior articular surface or facet

the inter articular crest

434

what features may be identified on the neck of a typical rib

the crest of the rib

435

which feature of the tubercle of a typical rib is closer to the head of the rib

the articular surface of the tubercle

436

which feature of the tubercle of a typical rib is closer to the shaft of the rib

the non articular surface of the tubercle

437

what features may be identified on the body of a typical rib

the costal angle and costal Groove

438

what is present on the head of the first rib

a single articular surface

439

is there a Crest on the neck of the first rib

not a well-developed one like on the typical rib

440

which groove on the body of the first rib is close to the vertebral end

the groove for the subclavian artery and the first thoracic nerve

441

which groove on the body of the first rib is close to the sternal end

the groove for the subclavian vein

442

is either the costal angle or costal Groove apparent on the first rib

no

443

what features may be identified on the head of rib two

to articular surfaces and the inter articular crest

444

what feature may be identified on the neck of rib two

the crest of the rib

445

what features may be identified on the body of rib two

the tuberosity for the serratus anterior, the costal angle, and the costal Groove

446

what distinguishes the vertebral end of rib 11 from typical ribs

the single articular surface, absence of a well-developed Crest on the neck and the tubercle may be absent or if present consists only of a non articular surface

447

what features may be present on the body of the 11th rib

the costal angle and costal Groove are underdeveloped

448

what helps to distinguish the vertebral end of the 12 rib from other ribs

the head has a single articular surface, the crest of the neck is probably developed, the tubercle is absent

449

what is the condition of the body of rib 12

it is the shortest of all ribs and the costal angle and costal Groove are

450

what is the term used to identify the study of joints

arthrology

451

what term is used to identify the study of ligaments

syndesmology

452

what are the three histological classifications of joints

fibrous, cartilaginou, and synovial fluid

453

what were the three Latin classifications of joints based on movement potential

synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis, diarthrosis

454

what are the characteristics of the amphiarthrosis synchondrosis

they are primarily cartilage joints, temporary and Longevity, composed of hyaline cartilage and form between ossification centers within a cartilage template

455

which classification of cartilage joint is secondary, permanent, composed of fibrous cartilage, and occurs between bones formed by endochondral ossification

amphiarthrosis symphysis

456

what are the four consistent features of synovial joints

articular or fibrous capsule, synovial membrane, articular cartilage, and synovial fluid

457

what examples of synovial plane joints occur along the vertebral column

most of zygapophyses of the vertebral column

458

what is an example of synovial pivot joints along the vertebral column

median atlantoaxial joint

459

what is the shared morphological characteristic of diarthrosis trochoid joints

an osseous pivot point and an Osteo ligamentous ring

460

what example of synovial saddle joint is identified along the spine

The Joint of luschka of typical cervical is a modified Sellar joint

461

what example of the Darth roses condylar joint is identified along the spine

the Atlanta occipital joint may be classified as a diarthrosis condylar joint

462

what example of the diarthrosis ellipsoidal joint is identified along the spine

the Atlanta occipital joint may be classified as a diarthrotic ellipsoidal joint

463

which synovial joint classifications are now often interchanged in textbooks

ellipsoidal and condylar synovial joints