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Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (176):
1

what is the name given to segments that lie in the transition zones of the vertebral column

transition vertebrae

2

what are the transiting zones of the vertebral column

occipitocervical, cervicothoracic, thoracolumbar, lumbosacral, sacrococcygeal

3

how are the specific segments within a transition zone identified

by adjacent region of the segment, process of transition, and specific segment (occipitalization of C1)

4

what does the suffix "ization" mean

in the process of becoming like

5

what are the possible transition zone - segment combinations

cervicalization of occiput, occipital ization of C1, dorsal ization of C7, cervical ization of T1, lumbar ization of T12, dorsal ization of L1, sacral ization of of L5, lumbar ization of S1, coccygealization of S5, Sacral ization of Co1

6

what are the characteristics of cervical ization of occiput

in increase in occipital bone size, formation of new or larger lines on the occipital bone.

7

What are the characteristics of occipital ization of C1

the atlas may be partially or completely fused to occiput

8

what is another way of implying occipital ization of C1

atlas assimilation

9

what is the incidence of occipital ization of C1

0.1% to 0.8%

10

when do the centers of ossification for the odontoid process appear first

during the last trimester in utero

11

when do the bilateral ossification centers for the odontoid process fuse

at or shortly after birth

12

what joint forms between the odontoid process ossification centers and the Centrum of C2

the subdental synchondrosis

13

what joint classification is present between the C2 odontoid process and Centrum

anphiarthrosis synchondrosis

14

ossification between the odontoid process and Centrum joint of C2 first appear at what age

4 years old

15

a joint between the odontoid process and Centrum joint of C2 is lady identified at what age

7 years old

16

what is the name given to the condition in which the joint firmed between the odontoid process Ann's the Centrum of C2 persists beyond age 7

os odontoideum

17

what is the name given to the joint between Tyne odontoid process and the Centrum of C2 which is still evident beyond age 7

persistent subdental synchondrosis

18

what is the name given to the joint formed between the tip of the dens and the odontoid produces centers of ossification

anphiarthrosis synchondrosis

19

at what age will the tip of the devs center if ossification appear

sometime in early adolescence

20

based on the age of appearance, how is the top of the dens center of ossification classified

secondary center of ossification

21

at what age will the tip of the dens fuse with the odontoid process

before age 12

22

if the joint formed between the tip of the dens and odontoid prices centers of ossification persists beyond age 12, what is the condition called

terminal ossicle

23

what is the basilar impression

Persistence of the nonunion of the basilar and condylar part of the chondrocranium such that the cartilage deforms due to the weight of the brain

24

what is the basilar invagination

the upper cervical spine appears to be invaginated into the skull on x-ray analysis

25

What is the characteristic of dorsal ization of C7

the addition of a rib and changes in Superior articular for set orientation or typical

26

what is the incidence of rib related changes following dorsal isation of C7

from one half to two and one half per cent of the population

27

two patients typically present with symptoms of specific for dorsal ization of C7

no they are typically asymptomatic

28

what is the gender bias suggested for dorsal isation of C7

female

29

what alteration of c7 facet Orientation May accompany dorsal ization

the superior articular facet of C7 may change from back aboard and medial to that of a typical thoracic facet back upward and lateral. The inferior articular facet is unchanged

30

what alteration of C6 facet Orientation May accompany dorsal ization

C6 demonstrates a change in inferior articular facet orientation from forward lateral and downward to forward medial and downward. The superior articular facet unchanged

31

what percent of the population made demonstrate thoracic like features at C7

up to 46%

32

what rib related changes May accompany cervical isation of T1

the first rib May decrease in mean relative length or become absent

33

what will result from Fusion of a short rib to the T1 transverse process

the transverse foramen

34

what T1 facet orientation changes May accompany cervical ization

the superior articular facet may change from back upward and lateral to back up word and medial. The inferior articular facet is unchanged

35

what C7 facet orientation changes May accompany cervical ization

the inferior articular facet may change from forward medial and downward to forward lateral and downward. The superior articular facet is unchanged

36

what is the incidence of cervical dilation of T1 in the population

up to 28%

37

what rib related changes May accompany dorsal ization of L1

elongated bones shaped like ribs may appear

38

what is the incidence of Lumbar ribs in the population

over 7% of the population demonstrates lumbar ribs

39

what L1 facet orientation changes May Company dorsal ization

the superior articular facet may change from concave back upward and medial to flat back aboard and lateral. The inferior articular facet is unchanged

40

what T12 facet orientation changes May accompany dorsal ization

the inferior articular facet may change from convex forward lateral and downward two-flat forward medial and downward. The superior articular facet is unchanged

41

what is the gender bias associated with dorsal ization of L1

males are two to three times more affected

42

what rib related changes May accompany lumbarization of T12

a significant shortening of the mean relative length of 113 mm of the 12th rib or it becomes absent

43

what T12 facet orientation changes May accompany lumbarization

the superior articular facet may change from Flat backward upward and lateral to concave back upward and medial. The inferior articular facet is unchanged

44

what T 11 facette orientation changes May accompany lumbarization

the inferior articular facet may change from Flat forward medial and downward to convex forward lateral and downward. The superior articular facet is unchanged

45

what is characteristic of lumbarization of S1

the failure of synostosis between S1 and S2 squaring of the vertebral body of S1 and flaring of the sacral ala

46

what unique characteristics of lumbarization of S1 we're stressed in class

squaring of the vertebral body of S1 and flaring of the sacral ala

47

what is failure of synostosis between S1 and S2

the segments do not completely fused together

48

what articular facet changes accompany lumbarization of S1

none

49

what is characteristic of sacralisation of L5

L5 may be partially or completely fused to the sacrum

50

what is the incidence of sacralisation of L5 in the population

41% - 85%

51

which segment demonstrate the greatest morphological variation along the spine

L5

52

what articular facet changes accompanied sacralisation of L5

none

53

what is the incidence of variation within the sacral coccygeal region in the population

up to 14%

54

what is characteristic of sacralisation of co1

the premature Fusion of co1 to the sacrum

55

what is characteristic of coccygeal ization of S5

the separation of S5 from sacrum and it's premature Fusion to co1

56

which of the muscles attaching to spinous processes represent layer one of the true back

trapezius and latissimus dorsi

57

which of the muscles attaching to spinous processes represent layer 2 of the true back

rhomboid major and rhomboid minor

58

which muscles attach into transverse processes represent layer two of the true back

levator scapulae

59

the trapezius is innervated by what nerve

the spinal accessory nerve

60

what forms the spinal accessory nerve innervating the trapezius

C1 through C5 chord levels contribute to the spinal root of the spinal accessory nerve

61

the latissimus dorsi is innervated by what nerve

the thoracodorsal nerve

62

what forms the thoracodorsal nerve innervating the latissimus dorsi

ventral ramus from C6 through C8

63

which of the muscles of the true back are innervated by the dorsal scapular nerve

levator scapulae, rhomboid major and rhomboid minor

64

what forms the dorsal scapular nerve

the ventral ramus of C5

65

what part of the vertebra forms the Aussies origin for the splenius muscles

the spinous process

66

splenius capitis will attach to what locations on a skull

mastoid process of temporal bone, Superior nuchal line of the occipital bone

67

contraction of splenius capitis will result in what movements

lateral flexion of head, rotation of face to the side. bilaterally they extend the head

68

what is the elevation of the splenius capitis

dorsal ramus of middle cervical spinal nerves. C3 through C5 cord levels

69

splenius cervicis will attach to what locations on the spine

lateral mass of C1 and posterior tubercle of transverse processes on C1 through C4

70

what is the innervation of the splenius cervicis

dorsal ramus of lower cervical spinal nerves. C5 through C7 cord levels

71

which muscles represent the fourth layer of the true back

the erector spinae or sacrospinalis muscles

72

which muscles are identified as erector spinae or sacrospinalis muscles

iliocostalis, longussimus, spinalis

73

what osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as An Origin to the iliocostalis lumborum

spinous processes of t11 through T12, L1 through L5, median sacral Crest, lateral sacral crest

74

what is the insertion for the iliocostalis lumborum

costal angles of a lower 6 through 9 ribs. Ribs 6 through 12 or rib 3 through 12

75

what is the Innovation for the iliocostalis lumborum

dorsal ramus of lower thoracic and all lumbar spinal nerves

76

what osseous part of the vertebral column serve as An Origin to the iliocostalis lumborum Parrs lumborum

spinous processes of L1 through L5

77

what is the insertion for the iliocostalis lumborum pars lumborum

iliac crest of the innominate bone

78

which subdivision of the iliocostalis muscle appears to have a reverse origin insertion

iliocostalis lumborum pars lumborum

79

what is the origin for the iliocostalis thoracis

costal angles of the lower 6 - 7 ribs

80

what is the insertion for the iliocostalis thoracis

costal angles of the upper 6 to 7 ribs, transverse process of C7

81

what else is part of the vertebral column serves as an insertion for the iliocostalis thoracis

transverse process of C7

82

which subdivision of the iliocostalis primarily originates and inserts on ribs

iliocostalis thoracis

83

what is the innovation of the iliocostalis thoracis

dorsal rami of upper 6th thoracic spinal nerves. T1 through T6 cord levels

84

what is the origin for the iliocostalis cervicis

costal angles of the upper 3 - 6 ribs. Ribs 1 through 3 or ribs 1 through 6

85

what is the insertion for the iliocostalis services

posterior tubercle of transverse process of C3 C4 through 6

86

what is the innovation of the iliocostalis services

dorsal Rami of T1, T2 spinal nerves, sometimes C8 spinal nerve

87

what muscles are classically identified as longissimus muscles

longissimus thoracis, longissimus cervicis, longissimus capitis

88

what osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as An Origin to the longissimus thoracis

accessory process and transverse processes of L1 through L5, spinous processes of L3 through L5 and median sacral Crest S1 thru S3

89

what is the insertion for the longest simis thoracis

transverse tubercle of all thoracic segments between tubercle and costal angle of the lower 9 to 10 ribs

90

which erector spinae muscle is attached to the accessory process

longissimus thoracis

91

what is the innervation of the LT

dorsal Rami of all thoracic and lumbar spinal nerves

92

what osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as An Origin to the LT pars lumborum

accessory process and medial part of the transverse process of L1 through L5

93

what is the insertion for the LT pars lumborum

posterior superior iliac spine of the innominate bone

94

what osseous part of the vertebral column sites serve as An Origin to the LT pars thoracis

spinous processes of L3 through L5 and median sacral Crest S1 thru S 3

95

what is the insertion for the LT pars thoracis

transverse process of all thoracics, between tubercle and costal angle of all ribs

96

which subdivision of the longissimus muscle appears to have a reversal of origin and insertion

LT pars lumborum

97

what osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an insertion for the longissimus cervicis

posterior tubercle of transverse processes of C2 through C6 or C7, articular processes from C2 through C 6 or 7

98

what is the innervation of the LC

dorsal Rami of C4 through C8 and T1 through T12 spinal nerves

99

what osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as An Origin to the El Cap

transverse tubercle of T1 through T5 and articular processes of C4 through C7

100

what is the insertion for the El Cap

mastoid process of temporal bone

101

what is the innervation of the El Cap

dorsal ramus C1 through C 3 or C4 spinal nerves

102

which erector spinae muscles attached to cervical articular processes

L C & L cap

103

what muscles are classically identified as spinalis muscles

spinalis thoracis, spinalis services spinalis capitis

104

what else is parts of the vertebral column serve as An Origin to the spinalis thoracis

spinous processes of t11 and T12 through L1 and L2

105

what is the insertion for the spinalis thoracis

spinous process of T1 through T4 or as low as T8

106

what is the innovation of the spinalis thoracis

dorsal Rami all thoracic and upper lumbar spinal nerves

107

what osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as An Origin to the spinalis services

spinous process of C7 and T1 through T6

108

what osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as and insertion for the spinalis services

spinous processes from C2 through C4

109

what is the innervation of the spinalis services

dorsal ramus of all cervical spinal nerves

110

what osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as An Origin to the spinalis capitis

spinous process of C7 and T1 through T6 or t7

111

what is the innervation of the spinalis capitis

dorsal ramus of lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal nerves

112

which muscles are identified as transversospinalis muscles

semispinalis, multifidus and rotators

113

how many vertebrae can it be attached to a single segment by transversospinalis muscles

as many as nine vertebrae

114

what osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as An Origin to the semispinalis thoracis

transverse tubercles of T6 through T10 or as low as T12

115

what segment will represent the lowest attachment site for the semispinalis thoracis

T12

116

what is the insertion for the semispinalis thoracis

spinous processes of C6 through C7 and T1 through T4

117

contraction of semispinalis thoracis will result in what movements

extension, lateral flexion and rotation of upper thoracic and lower cervical spine. Bilaterally they act to extend the thoracic spine

118

what is the innervation of the semi spinalis thoracis

dorsal ramus I of T1 through T6 spinal nerves

119

what osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as An Origin to the semispinalis cervicis

transverse tubercles of T1 through T5 or T6 and articular processes of C4 through C7

120

what is the insertion for the semispinalis services

spinous processes of C2 through C5

121

what is the innervation of the semispinalis services

dorsal ramus of C6 through C8 spinal nerves

122

what is the insertion for the semispinalis capitis

below the superior nuchal line of the occipital bone

123

what osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as An Origin to the semispinalis capitis

transverse tubercles of C7, T1 through T6 or t7 and articular processes of C4 through C6

124

what is the innervation of the semispinalis capitis

dorsal ramus of c one through C6 spinal nerves

125

the semispinalis capitis and spinalis capitis May fused to form what muscle

biventer cervicis

126

what Regional subdivisions are now identified with multifidus muscles

lumbar multifidus, thoracic multifidus and cervical multifidus

127

what osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as An Origin to the classic multifidus

articular process of C4 through C7, transverse processes of T1- T12, mammillary processes of L1 -L5 and the dorsal surface of S1 through S4 or S5

128

what is the insertion for the classic multifidus

spinous process 3 - 5 segments above the origin

129

which transversal spinalis muscle attaches to articular and mammillary processes along the spine

multifidis

130

contraction of the classic multifidus will result in what movements of the vertebral column

lateral flexion and rotation of the spine, maintains the lumbar Lordotic curve and prevents entrapment of zygapophyseal capsular ligament during movement

131

what is the innervation of the classic multifidus

dorsal ramus of C3 through C8, T1 through T12, L1 through L5 and S1 spinal nerves

132

what osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as An Origin to the multifidus services

articular process of C4 through C7

133

what is the attachment site and most cranial vertebra of insertion for the multifidus

spinous process of C2

134

contraction of multifidus services will result in what movements

Alters the zygapophyseal capsular ligament response to load distribution, determines the cervical spine response to injury as evidenced by neck pain, and is a significant contributor to postural control of the head and neck

135

which subdivision of multifidus May demonstrate a reversal of origin and insertion

multifidus lumborum

136

contraction of multifidus lumborum will result in what movements

lateral flexion and rotation of the lumbar spine, maintains the lumbar lordotic curve and prevents entrapment of Lumbar zygapophyseal capsular ligament during movement

137

which muscles of the spine exhibit a reversal of the expected origin and insertion combination

iliocostalis lumborum Parrs Lumber Orem, LT pars lumborum multifidus lumborum

138

Rotator muscles are typically identified in what region of the spine

the thoracic region

139

what will replace muscles spending one or two segmental levels in the cervical and lumbar spine

deep layers of the multifidus

140

contraction of Rotator longus will result in what movements

rotation of the segment of insertion. Bilaterally acts to Weakley extend spine

141

what innervates the rotators

dorsal ramus at the level of insertion are believed to do so

142

what muscles are included in the suboccipital muscle group

rectus capitis posterior major, rectus capitis posterior minor, obliquus capitis inferior and obliquus capitis Superior

143

which suboccipital muscles relax and attachment to the skull

obliquus capitis inferior

144

which nerve will innervate all suboccipital muscles

the dorsal ramus of C1, the suboccipital nerve

145

what is the origin of the rectus capitis posterior major

the spinous tubercle of C2

146

what is the insertion of the rectus capitis posterior minor

inferior nuchal line laterally

147

contraction of rectus capitis posterior major will result in what movements

turns the face to the side. bilaterally acts to extend the head

148

what is the origin of the rectus capitis posterior minor

the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch of C1

149

contraction of rectus capitis posterior minor will result in what movement

extends the head

150

what is the origin of the obliquus capitis inferior

C2 spinous process and lamina

151

what is the insertion of the obliquus capitis inferior

transverse process of C1

152

contraction of oblivious capitis inferior will result in what movement

turns the face to the side

153

what is the origin of the obliquus capitis superior

the posterior tubercle of the transverse process of C1

154

what is the insertion of the obliquus capitis Superior

between Superior nuchal line and inferior nuchal line

155

contraction of obliquus capitis superior will result in whatmovements

lateral flexion/lateral bending of the head, bilaterally asked to extend the head

156

an increase in the density of muscle spindles is most apparent in which suboccipital muscle

obliquus capitis inferior

157

suboccipital muscle feedback relays to what additional locations in the brain

extraocular nuclei of origin, primary visual cortex and vestibular nuclei

158

what is the result of communication between suboccipital muscles, visual centers and vestibular Center

coordination of head and eye position

159

what is the proposed function of the suboccipital muscle group

postural stabilizers of the Atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial joints

160

which suboccipital muscles are known to attach to dura mater

rectus capitis posterior major, rectus capitis posterior minor and obliquus capitis inferior

161

inter spinalis is paired in which regions of the spine

cervical and Lumbar regions

162

at what locations will inter spinalis be absent along the spine

T3 / T4 down to T10 / T 11

163

contraction of Interest been Alice is traditionally said to result in what movement

weak approximation of the spinous processes or extension of the spine

164

based on the density of muscle spindles what is the proposed function of the inter spinalis

acts as a proprioceptive transducer in conjunction with intertransversarii to coordinate the smooth movement of the spine and to maintain appropriate posture

165

intertransversarii are paired in which regions of thespine

cervical and Lumbar regions

166

in which region of the spine are intertransversarii best developed

cervical region

167

which of the cervical intertransversarii is innervated by dorsal Rami of cervical spinal nerves

posterior medial belly, cervical intertransversarii

168

what are the names of the parts of the intertransversarii in the lumbar spine

medial belly, anterior lateral belly, posterior lateral belly

169

what is the origin of the medial Belly of the lumbar intertransversarii

accessory process of transverse process L1 to L4, mammillary process of superior articular process L1 to L4

170

which of the lumbar intertransversarii is innervated by dorsal ramus of lumbar spinal nerves

medial belly, lumbar intertransversarii

171

which of the lumbar intertransversarii is innervated by ventral ramus of lumbar spinal nerves

anterior lateral belly and posterior lateral belly, lumbar intertransversarii

172

which muscle group is innervated by both dorsal ramus and ventral Rami of spinal nerves

intertransversarii

173

based on the density of muscle spindles what is the proposed function of the intertransversarii

acts as a proprioceptive transducer in conjunction with interspan Alice to coordinate the smooth movement of the spine and to maintain appropriate posture

174

what is the origin of the longest coli

vertebral bodies of C5 to C7, T1 to T3 and anterior tubercles of transverse processes C3 to C5

175

what is the insertion of the longest colli

anterior tubercle of the anterior Arch C1, vertebral bodies of C2 to C4, anterior tubercles of transverse processes C5 to C6

176

what will innervate the longest coli

ventral ramus of C2 - C6 or C7 spinal nerves