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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (287):
1

which mammals do not have 7 cervical vertebra

the two-toed sloth, Manatee, ant bear, and three toed sloth

2

which mammals have more than 7 cervical vertebra

ant bear, three-toed sloth

3

which mammals have less than 7 cervical vertebra

two-toed sloth, manatee

4

what is the number of vertebra in a typical cervical spine

7 segments

5

which vertebra are typical cervicals

C3 through C6

6

which vertebra are atypical cervical

C1, C2, C7

7

what is the shape of a typical cervical vertebral body from the cranial View

rectangular

8

what is the appearance of the typical cervical vertebral body from the lateral View

posterior height is greater than anterior height by a few millimeters

9

what would be the direction of the cervical curve based on osseous features

posterior or kyphotic

10

what accounts for the direction of the typical cervical

the intervertebral disc height

11

what is the direction of the typical cervical curve

anterior or lordotic

12

which vertebral couples will demonstrate a decrease in intervertebral disc height

C2/C3 down to C4/C5

13

at which vertebral couple will the cervical curve again increase intervertebral disc height

C5/C6

14

what are the names of the lateral modifications of the superior epiphyseal Rim in cervical

uncinate process, Unciform process, uncovertebral process, uncus or lateral lip

15

what are the modifications of the inferior epiphyseal rim of a typical cervical

Anterior lip, posterior lip, right and left lateral grooves

16

what is the joint classification of the anterior lip/anterior longitudinal ligament/anterior groove articulation

fibrous (anphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

17

what is the joint classification of the posterior lip / posterior longitudinal ligament/ posterior Groove articulation

fibrous (anphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

18

what is the joint classification of the uncinate process and lateral Groove articulation

modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis Sellar)

19

what is a joint classification for the spongy bone and intervertebral disc articulation

cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis

20

how many joints are present on the upper surface of a typical cervical vertebral body

5

21

how many joints are present on the lower surface of a typical cervical vertebral body

5

22

how many total joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of a typical cervical

10

23

what is the name given to the uncinate process and lateral Groove articulation

joint of luschka or uncovertebral joint

24

The Joint of Luschka is formed from what surfaces

the uncinate process and lateral Groove

25

how many total synovial joint services are present on the vertebral body of a typical cervical

4

26

what is the functional significance of the joint of Luschka

it appears to stabilize the intervertebral disc while accommodating flexion/extension and requiring couple motion (axial rotation with lateral bending) in the cervical spine

27

what muscle attaches to the typical cervical vertebral body

the longus colli muscle

28

what is the orientation and angulation of the pedicle of a typical cervical

posterolateral, 45 degrees

29

in the vertebral couple, which cervical vertebral body will contribute more toward the height of the intervertebral foramen

neither, both contribute equally to the intervertebral foramen height

30

what is the direction of projection of the cervical lamina

postero medially

31

what ligament attaches to the lamina of a typical cervical

ligamentum flavum

32

what joint classification will be associated with the ligamentum flavum and its attachment

fibrous (anphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

33

ossification of the ligamentum flavum at the attachment site on the lamina will result in what feature

para articular processes

34

ossification of the ligamentum flavum at the attachment site on the lamina will be associated with which classification of bone

accessory bone

35

ossification within the length of the ligamentum flavum will be associated with which classification of bone

heterotopic bone

36

what is the outline of the vertebral foramen of a typical cervical vertebra

heart-shaped or triangular

37

which is the greatest diameter of the vertebral foramen of typical cervical

transverse

38

the greatest transverse diameter of the typical cervical vertebra occurs at which vertebral level

C6

39

the greatest frequency of osteophytes associated with the vertebral body occurs at which typical cervical vertebral couple

C5 C6

40

what osseous parts form of the typical cervical vertebra transverse process

costal element, anterior tubercle, costotransverse bar, posterior tubercle, true transverse process

41

what muscles will attach the anterior tubercle of a typical cervical vertebra

anterior scalene, longus capitis, longus colli, anterior intertransversarii

42

what muscles May attach to the posterior tubercle of a typical cervical vertebra

splenius cervicis, iliocostalis cervicis, longissimus cervicis, levator scapula, middle scalene, posterior scalene, rotators and posterior intertransversarii

43

what muscles will attach to the cost of transverse bar

middle scalene and posterior intertransversarii

44

what produces the primary tension on the transverse process that will cause remodeling in the anterolateral and inferior directions

cervical spinal nerves as they are directed anterolaterally and inferior leave to form the cervical and brachial plexuses

45

what is the name given to the superior margin of the costotransverse bar

sulcus for the ventral primary ramus of a cervical spinal nerve

46

what is the orientation and angulation of a typical cervical transverse process

60° anterolaterally from midsagittal plane, 15° inferiorly from the horizontal plane

47

what is the name given to the modification of the anterior tubercle of the C6 transverse process

the Carotid tubercle

48

what will occupy the typical cervical vertebra transverse foramen

the vertebral artery, vertebral venous plexus and postganglionic sympathetic motor nerve fibers

49

what is the name of the surface feature observed between the ends of the articular pillar

the groove/sulcus for the dorsal ramus of a cervical spinal nerve

50

what is the classic angulation of typical cervical articular facets

40 to 45 degrees from the coronal plane

51

recent work suggests what angulation for typical cervical articular facets

55 to 60 degrees

52

what is the orientation of the typical cervical Superior articular facet

backward, upward, medial (BUM)

53

what is the orientation of the typical cervical inferior articular facet

forward, lateral, downward (FoLD)

54

what muscles will attach to typical cervical articular processes

the longissimus capitis, longissimus cervicis, semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, multifidus and rotators

55

what muscles blend with the capsular ligament of cervical zygapophyses

the semispinalis capitis, multifidus and Rotator longus

56

what is the joint classification for the typical cervical zygapophysis

synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia) joint

57

what modifications of the synovial joint are observed in the cervical spine

meniscoidal Folds

58

what function will meniscoidal folds provide in cervical zygapophyses

they are assumed to distribute pressure Across The Joint surface

59

the greatest range of flexion extension among the typical cervical vertebrae occurs at which vertebral couple

typically C5/C6

60

what motions are coupled in the cervical spine

lateral bending and axial rotation

61

ranges of coupled motion among the typical cervical vertebra will be similar for what cervical vertebral couples

the C2/C3, C3/C4, C4/C5 vertebral couples

62

ranges of coupled motion among the typical cervical vertebra will begin to decrease at what cervical vertebral couple

the C5 C6 vertebral couple

63

what is the usual condition for the Caucasian typical cervical spinous process

they are bifid

64

what is the usual condition for the African-American typical cervical spinous process

they are non bifid

65

what muscles May attach to the typical cervical spinous process

the spinalis cervicis, semispinalis cervicis, semispinalis thoracis, multifidis, rotators and interspinalis

66

what ligaments will attach to the typical cervical spinous process

the inter spinous ligament and ligamentum nuchae

67

what will form the anterior boundary of a typical cervical intervertebral foramen

the lateral Groove and vertebral body of the segment above, the uncinate process and vertebral body of the segment below, the intervertebral discs and the posterior longitudinal ligament

68

what will form the posterior boundary of a typical cervical intervertebral foramen

the inferior articular process, the superior articular process, the capsular ligament and the ligamentum flavum

69

what will form the superior boundary of a typical cervical intervertebral foramen

the inferior vertebral notch or inferior vertebral incisure

70

what will form the inferior boundary of a typical cervical intervertebral foramen

the superior vertebral notch or Superior vertebral incisure

71

what is the Unique Interior boundary of the intervertebral foramen for the C4 spinal nerve

the lateral group of C3 and uncinate process of C4 forming the joint of luschka

72

what is the name of the first cervical vertebra

Atlas

73

what features are lacking at C1

vertebral body, pedicles, a spinous process and the intervertebral disc

74

what is thought to represent the pedicle at C1

the anterior Arch

75

what osseous modification is observed to the front of the anterior arch of C1

the anterior tubercle

76

what muscle attaches to the anterior arch of C1

longus colli

77

what ligaments will attach the anterior arch of C1

the anterior longitudinal, anterior atlanto-occipital and anterior atlantoaxial ligaments

78

what is observed on the back of the anterior arch of C1

the fovea dentist

79

what join classifications are observed on the anterior arch of C1

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint and synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid) joint

80

what is the morphology of the superior articular facet of C1

they are elliptical, closer together in front and often demonstrate and elevation subdividing the fassett surface into two separate surfaces

81

what is the orientation of the superior articular facet of C1

backward, upward, medial. Bum

82

what is the joint classification of the atlantoaxial zygapophysis

synovial diarthrosis ellipsoidal joint

83

what are morphological characteristics of the inferior articular facet of C1

asymmetrical, slightly concave or flattened

84

what is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of C1

backward, media, downward. Bmd

85

what is the joint classification of the atlantoaxial zygapophysis

synovial plane diarthrosis arthrodial joint

86

what is the name of the rounded elevation on the medial aspect of the lateral mass of C1

typical for the transverse Atlantal ligament

87

what muscles attach to the lateral mass of C1

levator scapulae, splenius cervicis and rectus capitis anterior

88

what part of C1 represents the spinous process

posterior tubercle of the posterior Arch

89

what is the distance from the posterior tubercle of the posterior Arch to the skin in each gender

males about 50 cm, females about 37mm

90

what attaches to the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch of C1

rectus capitis posterior minor muscle and ligamentum nuchae

91

what Superior Service modifications of the posterior arch of C1 are present

Groove / sulcus for the vertebral artery and arcuate rim

92

what attaches to the arcuate rim of C1

the posterior atlanto occipital ligament

93

ossification of the free margin of the posterior atlanto occipital ligament results in which a typical bone classification

accessory bone

94

what is the earliest stage of development where ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto occipital ligament was observed

about age 7 years old

95

based on the amount of ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto occipital ligament what structures will form

an incomplete ponticulus posticus or a complete ponticulus posticus

96

what are the name a be used to identify a ponticulus posticus

kimmerle anomaly

97

what names are given to the opening formed by the ponticulus posticus

arcuate foramen or retro articular canal

98

ponticulus posticus had been observed in what ethnic populations

all ethnic populations studied thus far

99

what is the general range of incidence of ponticulus posticus in the populations studied

1% to 41%

100

what is the gender bias now associated with ponticulus posticus

female

101

what is the incidence of a complete ponticulus posticus versus an incomplete ponticulus posticus

the incidence of a complete ponticulus posticus is about 15%, the incidence of an incomplete ponticulus posticus may be as high as 41%

102

what are the osseous parts of the transverse process of C1

costal element, post your typical, true transverse process

103

what muscles attach to the transverse process of C1

rectus capitis anterior, rectus capitis lateralis, middle scalene, levator scapulae, splenius cervicis, obliquus capitis Superior, obliquus capitis inferior and intertransversarii muscles

104

what suboccipital muscles are known to have facial projections attaching to the spinal Dura

rectus capitis posterior minor, rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus capitis inferior

105

were they connections between suboccipital muscles and the spinal Dura called

myodural bridges

106

what are the lateral bridges of Atlas connected to

the lateral mass and the transverse process of Atlas

107

what forms of the lateral bridges are observed in the population

incomplete lateral Bridges incomplete lateral Bridges

108

what opening is identified when a complete lateral Bridge is formed

the Retro transverse foramen

109

what are the possible contents of the Retro transverse foramen

the vertebral artery, a branch from a sub occipital nerve and veins communicating with the venous sinuses of the neck

110

which of the ponticles (bridges) of Atlas is most numerous

ponticulus posticus

111

which of the ponticles of Atlas is only observed in humans

lateral bridges

112

what is observed in the transverse foramen of C1

vertebral artery, vertebral venous plexus, post ganglionic sympathetic motor nerve fibers

113

what is the gender variation for measurements of the transverse diameter of C1

males 78mm, females 72 mm

114

what is the distance from the posterior tubercle of the transverse process of C1 to the skin for each gender

a little over 30 mm for both males and females

115

how many synovial joint services are observed at C1

5

116

what names are given to C2

axis or epistropheus

117

what unique vertebral body modification is characteristic of C2

the dens or odontoid process

118

how many joint services are present on the odontoid process of C2

5

119

what joint surfaces are present on the Android process of C2

facet for fovea dentist, Groove for transverse Atlanta ligament, attachment sites for the alar ligaments, attachment site for the apical Dental ligament

120

what is the name / classification given to the odontoid process when the tip of the dens is directed posterior

lordotic dens

121

what is the name / classification given to the odontoid process when the tip of the dens is directed anterior

kyphotic dens

122

what joint surfaces are present at the inferior part of the vertebral body of C2

anterior lip, posterior lip, right and left lateral grooves and cancellous Bone

123

how many joints are formed by the inferior part of the vertebral body of C2

5

124

how many joint services are present at the vertebral body of C2

10

125

what joint classifications are present at the vertebral body of C2

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis, synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid), modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis seller) and cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis

126

what ligament will represent the cranial continuation of the posterior longitudinal ligament

membrana tectoria

127

what ligament forms the anterior boundary for the spinal canal below C2

posterior longitudinal ligament

128

what is the location of the superior vertebral Notch of C2

on the lamina pedicle Junction

129

what attaches to the lamina of C2

obliquus capitis inferior muscle, posterior atlantoaxial ligament, ligamentum flavum

130

what is the appearance of the superior articular facets of C2

they are asymmetrical and slightly convex

131

what is the facet orientation of the superior articular facet of C2

backward, upward, and lateral. Bul

132

what is the orientation of the inferior articular facets of C2

forward, lateral, and down. Fold

133

what muscles attach to the articular process of C2

longissimus cervicis

134

what will be observed in the transverse foramen at C2

vertebral artery, vertebral venous plexus, postganglionic sympathetic motor nerve fibers

135

what is the gender variation for the transverse diameter of C2

males 57mm, females 50mm

136

what muscles attached to the transverse process of C2

levator scapulae, middle scalene, splenius cervicis, longissimus cervicis and intertransversarii

137

What is the characteristic appearance of the C2 spinous process in humans

bifid

138

what muscles attach to the spinous process of C2

rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus capitis inferior, spinalis cervicis, semispinalis cervicis, multifidus, rotators and Interspinalis muscles

139

what ligaments attach to the spinous process of C2

ligamentum nuchae, inter spinous ligaments

140

what names may be given to C7

vertebra prominens and vertebral prominens

141

what name is only given to C7

vertebra prominens

142

what is the name given to the topographical elevation observed at the base of the neck

vertebral prominence

143

in what percent of men and of women does C7 become the vertebral prominence

men 86%, women 79%

144

what is the segments and gender bias for vertebra other than C7 becoming the vertebral prominence

C6 is more common in females and T1 is more common in males

145

how many joint services are present at the vertebral body of C7

8

146

what joint classifications are observed at the vertebral body of C7

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis, cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis and modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis Sellar) joint

147

what muscles attach to the vertebral body of C7

longus colli muscle

148

what features are typically present in the transverse foramen of C7

vertebral venous plexus, postganglionic sympathetic motor fibers

149

what muscles attach to the transverse process of C7

middle scalene, iliocostalis thoracis, longissimus cervicis, semispinalis capitis, rotators, intertransversarii and levator costarum brevis

150

what is the orientation of a superior articular facet of C7

backward, upward, medial. Bum

151

what is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of C7

forward, medial, downward. Formed

152

what muscle will attach to the articular process of C7

longissimus cervicis, longissimus capitis, semispinalis cervicis and multifidus

153

what muscles attach the spinous process of C7

trapezius, rhomboid minor, serratus posterior Superior, splenius capitis, spinalis capitis, spinalis Services, semispinalis thoracis, multifidus, rotators and interspinalis

154

what ligaments attach to the spinous process of C7

ligamentum nuchae and Inter spinous ligaments

155

the vertebral artery on which side is typically larger

left vertebral artery

156

what is the gender bias regarding size of the vertebral artery

men have larger vertebral arteries than women

157

what was the name of the physical exam used to determine vertebral artery patency

the vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency test

158

which side artery was tested during the course of the vertebral basilar artery insufficiency exam

the ipsilateral artery on the side of rotation

159

typically at what vertebral level will the vertebral artery first become located in the transverse foramen

C6

160

at what location will the vertebral artery form it's first compensatory Loop

the atlanto axial interspace

161

at what location will the vertebral artery form its second compensatory Loop

the Atlanta occipital interspace

162

at what segments will the vertebral artery be firmly attached to the transverse foramen

both C1 and C2

163

what is the purpose of the vertebral artery Loops between C2, C1, and occiput

The increased length will accommodate the greater rotation at these locations

164

what happens to the vertebral artery after it enters the subarachnoid space at C1

the vertebral artery ascends along the medulla oblongata to the pontine medullary Junction where the right and left arteries unite to form the basilar artery

165

what suboccipital muscles attach to C1

rectus capitis posterior minor, obliquus capitis Superior, obliquus capitis inferior

166

which suboccipital muscles attach to C2

rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus capitis inferior

167

which erector spinae muscles attach to the cervical spine

iliocostalis thoracis, iliocostalis cervicis, longissimus cervicis, longissimus capitis, spinal cervicis, spinals capitis

168

which transversospinalis muscles attaches to the cervical spine

semispinalis cervicis, semispinalis capitis, multifidis, rotators

169

what joint classifications are present at C1

synovial (diarthrosis) ellipsoidal, synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid), synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia) and fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

170

what joint classifications are present at C2

synovial pivot, synovial plane, modified synovial saddle, fibrous syndesmosis and cartilaginous symphysis joint

171

what joint classifications are present at each typical cervical

synovial plane, modified synovial saddle, fibrous syndesmosis and cartilaginous symphysis

172

what drug classifications are present at C7

synovial plane, modified synovial saddle, fibrous syndesmosis and cartilaginous symphysis

173

what forms the boundary for the exit of the C1 nerve for the spinal canal

occipital condyle, Superior articular process of C1, capsular ligament, arcuate Rim, Groove for the vertebral artery, posterior atlanto occipital ligament

174

what forms the boundaries for the exit of the C2 nerve from the spinal canal

inferior articular process of C1, Superior articular process of C2, capsular ligament, inferior vertebral Notch of C1, Superior vertebral Notch of C2, posterior arch of C1, lamina of C2, posterior atlanto axial ligament

175

what forms the anterior boundary for the C2 nerve exit from the spinal canal

inferior articular process of C1, Superior articular process of C2, capsular ligament

176

what forms the posterior boundary it for the C2 nerve exit from the spinal canal

the posterior arch of C1, lamina of C2 and posterior atlanto axial ligament

177

what forms the anterior boundary for the C3 through C7 nerve exit from the spinal canal

the vertebral bodies, intervertebral discs, posterior longitudinal ligament, uncinate process, lateral Groove

178

what forms the anterior boundary for the cat of exit from the spinal canal

the vertebral bodies of C7 and T1, intervertebral disc, posterior longitudinal ligament, capsular ligament of the Costo Central joint, Superior costal facet of T1 and articular surface of the first rib

179

what are the superior articular facet orientations for the cervical vertebra

C1 is backward, upward, medial. C2 is backward, upward, lateral. C3 through C7 is backward, upward, medial

180

what are the inferior articular facet orientations for the cervical vertebrae

see one is backward, downward, medial (bmd). C2 thru C6 is forward, downward, lateral (fold). C7 is forward, downward, medial (formed).

181

how many synovial joints are identified for each cervical vertebra

C1 is 5, C2 is eight, C3-6 is eight, C7 is six

182

how many joints are identified at the vertebral body of each cervical vertebra

C1 is none, C2 is 10, C3 through 6 is 10, C7 is 8

183

what features will allow discrimination between T2 through T4 and T5 through T8 segmental groups

the vertebral body, transverse process, articular process and spinous process

184

what is the outline of the vertebral body of a typical thoracic from Superior View

triangular

185

what is the name given to the left side of parents of the vertebral body of T5 through T8

the aortic impression

186

what is the aortic impression

the flattening of the superior and inferior epiphyseal rims on the left side of the vertebral body of T5 through T8 which gives the vertebral body a less scalloped or less indented appearance on that side

187

what part of the vertebral body is most influenced by the aorta at T5 through T8

the left side Superior and inferior epiphyseal rims

188

what is the height pattern of the typical thoracic vertebral body

the posterior height is greater than the anterior height by 1 to 2 mm

189

what is the height pattern of the intervertebral discs in the typical thoracic region

the intervertebral discs are rather plain are or flat with no apparent height difference between anterior and posterior height

190

what is the principal cause of the posterior curve of the thoracic spine

the vertebral body height differences

191

in terms of the anterior posterior curves of the vertebral column, what direction will the thoracic spine face

posterior

192

what is another way of naming a posterior curve pattern

a kyphotic curve

193

what join classifications are identified at the vertebral body of a typical thoracic

fibrous syndesmosis, cartilaginous symphysis and synovial plane

194

how many synovial joints are formed at the vertebral body of a typical thoracic

4

195

how many symphysis joints are formed with the vertebral body of a typical thoracic

two

196

how many joints are formed at the vertebral body of a typical thoracic

typically 10. 14 if the costocentral stellate/ radiate ligaments are included

197

what is the name given to the Joint formed between the vertebral body and rib

costocentral joint

198

how many CostcoCentral joints are formed at the vertebral body of a typical thoracic

4

199

which of the demifacets on the vertebral body of a typical thoracic is larger

the superior costal demifacet

200

what feature will provide assistance in maintaining the stability of the intervertebral foramen in the typical thoracics

the costocentral joint or ribs

201

what is the size relationship between the articulating surface of the head of the rib and the costal demifacet surface

the rib surface is greater than the costal demifacet surface

202

which muscle or muscles is attached to the vertebral body of T2 through T3

the longus coli

203

what is the angulation of the particle in the typical thoracic region

10 - 15 degrees posterolateral from the sagittal plane

204

which x-ray view is used to see into the intervertebral foramen of a typical thoracic

the lateral View

205

which vertebral notch or incisor is said to be prominent

the inferior vertebral notch

206

what is the nerve / vertebral body relationship at the typical thoracic intervertebral foramen

in the intervertebral foramen, the number of the nerve is the same as the number of the upper thoracic in the vertebral couple

207

what is the rib / vertebral body relationship at the typical thoracic intervertebral foramen

in the intervertebral foramen, the number of the rib is the same as the number of the lower thoracic in the vertebral couple

208

what is the overlap of the lamina called in the typical thoracic region

shingling

209

in which plane will the size of the vertebral foramen of a typical thoracic be greatest

the transverse plane, the vertebral transverse diameter

210

what is the distance between the transverse tubercles and the typical thoracic region

from tea to each transfers domitor becomes shorter as the transverse processes angle more posterior

211

what is present on the transverse tubercle of a typical thoracic

the transverse costal facet

212

what is the rib / transverse process relationship for the typical thoracics

the number of the rib is the same as the number of the vertebra whose transverse process is being studied, fifth rib with T5 transverse process

213

what is the classification of the costotransverse joint

synovial plane joint

214

what are the osseous parts of the costotransverse joint

the transverse costal facet and the articular surface of the tubercle of a rib

215

what ligaments support the cost of transverse joint of a typical thoracic

the superior costotransverse, inferior costotransverse, and lateral costotransverse ligaments

216

the superior cost of transverse ligament of rib 5 will attach to which vertebral feature

the transverse process of T4

217

what ligaments attach to the transverse process of a typical thoracic

intertransverse, capsular costotransverse, Superior costotransverse, inferior costotransverse and lateral costotransverse ligaments

218

which muscles May attach to the transverse process of a typical thoracic

longissimus thoracis, longissimus cervicis, longissimus capitis, semispinalis thoracis, semispinalis cervicis, semispinalis capitis, multifidis, rotator longus, rotator brevis, intertransversarii, levator costarum longus and levator costarum brevis.

219

of the muscles attaching to the transverse process of typical thoracics which one will attach only to the T5 T8 vertebral segments

semispinalis thoracis and levator costarum longus

220

how did the transverse diameters of the articular processes compare and the t2 through T4 region

the superior articular process transverse diameter is greater than the inferior articular process transverse diameter for given segment

221

how did the transverse diameters of the articular process compare in the T5 through T8 region

the superior articular process transverse diameter is the same as or equal to the inferior articular process transverse diameter for a given segment

222

what is the orientation of the superior articular facet of a typical thoracic

backward, upward, and lateral. Bul

223

what is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of a typical thoracic

forward, downward, and medial. Formed

224

what is the curvature of the superior articular facet of a typical thoracic

they are slightly convex

225

what is the curvature of the inferior articular facet of a typical thoracic

they are slightly concave

226

what is the drug classification of the articular facet joint

synovial plane

227

how many synovial joints are present at a typical thoracic

10

228

identify the synovial joint surfaces present on a typical thoracic

2 Superior costal demifacets, two inferior costal demifacets, two transverse costal facets, 2 Superior articular facets, two inferior articular facets

229

what is the name given to the overlap of spinous processes in the thoracic region

imbrication

230

imbrication will be more pronounced for what region of the thoracic

T5 through T8

231

which thoracic has the longest spinous process

T8

232

what is the angulation of the spinous process of T2 through T4

the undersurface of T2 through T4 spinous processes will angle up to 40 degrees from the horizontal plane

233

what is the angulation of the spinous process of T5 through T8

the undersurface of T5 through T8 spinous processes will angle up to 60 degrees from the horizontal plane

234

what joint classification is associated with typical thoracic spinous process ligaments

fibrous syndesmosis joint

235

which muscles May attach to the spinous process of a typical thoracic

trapezius, latissimus dorsi, rhomboid major, serratus posterior Superior, splenius cervicis, splenius capitis, spinalis thoracis, spinalis Services, spinalis capitis, semispinalis thoracis , multifidus, Rotator longus, Rotator brevis and interspinalis

236

which muscles attach into the spinous process of a typical thoracic are not included in any muscle layer of the true back

splenius cervicis, splenius capitis and inter spinalis

237

what joint classifications are present at every typical thoracic vertebra

fibrous syndesmosis, cartilaginous symphysis and synovial plane

238

what is the appearance of the superior surface of the vertebral body of T 1

it is somewhat cup-shaped with elevations at the posterior and lateral margin

239

what made the elevations on the vertebral body of T1 represent

uncinate processes

240

what is the appearance of the inferior surface of the vertebral body of T1

typically flat, lacking anterior and posterior lips characteristic of the cervical

241

how many synovial joints are formed at the vertebral body of T1

four normally

242

how many symphysis joints are formed with the vertebrae body of T1

two

243

how many syndesmosis joints are formed of the vertebral body of T1

typically for are identified, as many as eight if the rib articulation is included

244

how many joints are formed at the vertebral body of T1

typically 10, 14 if the rib ligaments are included

245

how many Costco Central joints are formed at the vertebral body of T1

4

246

what synovial joint surfaces are present on the T1 vertebral body

the right and left Superior costal facet, the right and left inferior costal demifacet

247

what is the rib / vertebral body combination at the intervertebral foramen for the 8th cervical nerve

the superior costal facet of T1 will joint with the articular surface of the head of the first rib

248

what ligament supports the cost of central joint of the first rib

the Costco Central Stella / radiate ligament

249

what ligaments support the Costo Central joint of the second rib

the Costo Central stellate / radiate ligament and the Costo Central interarticular or intra-articular ligament

250

what muscle is attached to the vertebral body of T1

the longus colli

251

what ligaments support the cost of transverse joint of T1

the inferior costotransverse and lateral costotransverse ligaments

252

what ligament is absent at the costotransverse Joint of T1

the superior costotransverse ligament

253

which Costo transverse joint will the superior costotransverse ligament of T1 support

the second rib costotransverse joint

254

what muscles attach to the transverse process of T1

longissimus thoracis, longissimus cervicis, longissimus capitis, semispinalis cervicis, semispinalis capitis, multifidis, rotator longus, rotator brevis, intertransversarii, levator costarum brevis

255

which specific transversospinalis muscle is absent from T1

semispinalis thoracis

256

what is the orientation of the superior articular facet of T1

backward, upward, lateral. Bul

257

what is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of T1

forward, downward, medial. Formed

258

what is the classification of the articular facet joint of T1

synovial plane

259

how many synovial joints are present at T1

10

260

how many synovial joint surfaces for ribs are present at T1

6

261

which vertebrae have been identified as forming the vertebral prominence

C6, C7, T1

262

what is the gender bias associated with T1 as the vertebral prominence

males, 9%, are more likely than females, 6%, to demonstrate T1 as the vertebral prominence

263

what muscles attach to the spinous process of T1

the trapezius, rhomboid minor, serratus posterior Superior, splenius capitis, spinalis thoracis, spinalis cervicis, spinalis capitis, semispinalis thoracis, multifidus, Rotator longus, Rotator brevis, enter spinalis

264

which synovial joint surfaces may be absent from the vertebral body of T9

inferior costal demifacets

265

which muscles attach to the transverse process of T9

longissimus thoracis, semi spinalis thoracis, multifidus, Rotator longus, Rotator brevis, intertransversarii, levator costarum longus, and levator costarum brevis

266

which is the last arrested vertebra to have an inferior costal Demi facet

T9

267

what muscles attach to the spinous process of T9

the trapezius, latissimus dorsi, multifidus, Rotator longus, Rotator brevis and inter spinalis

268

which muscles are conspicuously absent at the T9 spinous process

spinalis and semispinalis

269

how many synovial joints are formed at the vertebral body of T10

two

270

how many symphysis joints are formed with the vertebral body of T10

two

271

how many syndesmosis joints are formed at the vertebral body of T10

typically four are identified, as many as eight if the cost of central stellate / radiate ligaments are included

272

which synovial joint surface is absent from vertebral body of T10

inferior costal demifacets

273

para articular processes are more commonly observed on which segment of the spine

T10

274

what is typically present on the transverse tubercle of T10

the transverse costal facet

275

what muscles attach to the transverse process of T10

longissimus thoracis, semispinalis thoracis, multifidus, Rotator longus, Rotator brevis, intertransversarii, levator costarum longus and levator costarum brevis

276

which rib related facet is absent on T10

the inferior costal demifacet

277

what is the orientation of the spinous process of T10

posterior and slightly inferior, it will shorten and become more horizontal

278

a dimpling or depression of the skin in the thoracic region is often characteristic of the location of which segment

T10

279

what muscles attach to the spinous process of T10

the trapezius, latissimus dorsi, multifidus, Rotator longus, Rotator brevis and inter spinalis

280

what name is given to t11

the anticlinal vertebra

281

how many synovial joints are formed at the vertebral body of t11

two

282

how many symphysis joints are formed with a vertebral body of T 11

two

283

how many joints are typically formed at the vertebral body of T 11

typically 8, 12 if the Costo Central stellate / radiate ligaments are included

284

what is present at the tip of the transverse process of t-11

the transverse tubercle

285

what part of the transverse process is absent present on t11

the transverse costal facet

286

which vertebra is the last segment to demonstrate a transverse costal facet

T10

287

what ligaments form the cost of transverse joint of t-11

the superior costotransverse, and slightly developed inferior costotransverse and lateral costotransverse ligaments