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0

What constitutes the spine?

The 24 presacral segments; the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae

1

Which mammals have more than seven cervical vertebrae?

The ant bear and three toed sloth

2

Which mammals have less than 7 cervical vertebrae?

The manatee and two toed sloth

3

What does the term "thoracic" refer to?

Brest plate or chest; it referred to the armor bearing region of the torso

4

What does the term "lumbar" refer to?

The loin; the region between the rib and the hip

5

What does the term "coccyx" refer to?

A cuckoo birds' bill or cuckoo birds' beak

6

Differences in the number and morphology of vertebrae within the population based on male and female variation is identified as which type of variation?

Gender variation or sexual dimorphism

7

Differences in the number and morphology of vertebrae within the population based on age of developmental variation is identified as which type of variation?

Ontogenetic variation

8

Differences in the number and morphology of vertebrae within the population based on ethnicity of locational variation is identified as which type of variation?

Geographic variation of population based variation

9

Differences in the number and morphology of vertebrae within the population based on the variation between individuals is identified as which type of variation?

Idiosyncratic variation

10

What is the length of a typical male spinal column?

About 70 centimeters or 28 inches

11

What is the length of a typical female spinal column?

About 60 centimeters or 25 inches

12

What is the length difference between a typical male and a typical female spinal column?

About 3 inches

13

Based on the numbers for individual regions of the vertebral column, what is the length of the male spine (both measurements)?

About 58 centimeters or 23 inches

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7
5

14

What specifically is responsible for the shape and position of the human frame?

Comparative anterior vs posterior height of the vertebral body and comparative anterior vs posterior height of the intervertebral disc

15

What organ(s) are specifically associated with the horizontal axis of the skull?

The eye and the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear

16

What are the three basic osseous parts of a vertebra?

The vertebral body, vertebral arch, and the apophyseal regions

17

What is the general shape of the vertebral body at each region of the spine?

Cervical - rectangular; thoracic - triangular; lumbar - reniform

18

What are the ages of appearance and the events occurring at each step in the formation of bone at the superior and inferior surface of the vertebral body?

Ages 7-9 years, appearance of epiphyseal plate centers of ossification

Age 12 years, formation of the epiphyseal ring

Age 15 years, formation of the epiphyseal rim

19

What large opening is usually observed at the back of the vertebral body?

The basivertebral venous foramen

20

What is the semicircular region of the bone attached to the back of the vertebral body called?

The vertebral arch

21

What is the generic orientation of the pedicle at each region of the spine?

Cervical - posterolateral

Thoracic - posterior, slight lateral

Lumbar - posterior

22

What ligament will attach to the lamina?

The ligamentum flavum

23

What is the name given to abnormal bone at the attachment site of the ligamentum flavum?

Para-articular process

24

What classification of bone will para-articular processes represent?

Accessory bone

25

What is the name given to the overlap of laminae seen on x-Ray?

Shingling

26

What is the name given to the lamina - pedicle junction at each region of the spine?

Cervical - articular pillar; thoracic and lumbar - pars interarticularis

27

What is the name given to the junction of the vertebral arch - spinous process on lateral x-Ray?

The spinolaminar junction

28

All non-rib-bearing vertebra of the spine retain what equivalent feature?

The costal element

29

What will cause the transverse process/transverse apophysis to alter its initial direction in the cervical region?

Cervical spinal nerves are pulled forward to form the cervical and brachial nerve plexuses thus remodeling the transverse process to accommodate their new position