Flashcards in Exam One Study Questions Deck (247)
What constitutes the spine?
The 24 presacral segments; the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae
Which mammals have more than seven cervical vertebrae?
The ant bear and three toed sloth
Which mammals have less than 7 cervical vertebrae?
The manatee and two toed sloth
What does the term "thoracic" refer to?
Brest plate or chest; it referred to the armor bearing region of the torso
What does the term "lumbar" refer to?
The loin; the region between the rib and the hip
What does the term "coccyx" refer to?
A cuckoo birds' bill or cuckoo birds' beak
Differences in the number and morphology of vertebrae within the population based on male and female variation is identified as which type of variation?
Gender variation or sexual dimorphism
Differences in the number and morphology of vertebrae within the population based on age of developmental variation is identified as which type of variation?
Differences in the number and morphology of vertebrae within the population based on ethnicity of locational variation is identified as which type of variation?
Geographic variation of population based variation
Differences in the number and morphology of vertebrae within the population based on the variation between individuals is identified as which type of variation?
What is the length of a typical male spinal column?
About 70 centimeters or 28 inches
What is the length of a typical female spinal column?
About 60 centimeters or 25 inches
What is the length difference between a typical male and a typical female spinal column?
About 3 inches
Based on the numbers for individual regions of the vertebral column, what is the length of the male spine (both measurements)?
About 58 centimeters or 23 inches
What specifically is responsible for the shape and position of the human frame?
Comparative anterior vs posterior height of the vertebral body and comparative anterior vs posterior height of the intervertebral disc
What organ(s) are specifically associated with the horizontal axis of the skull?
The eye and the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear
What are the three basic osseous parts of a vertebra?
The vertebral body, vertebral arch, and the apophyseal regions
What is the general shape of the vertebral body at each region of the spine?
Cervical - rectangular; thoracic - triangular; lumbar - reniform
What are the ages of appearance and the events occurring at each step in the formation of bone at the superior and inferior surface of the vertebral body?
Ages 7-9 years, appearance of epiphyseal plate centers of ossification
Age 12 years, formation of the epiphyseal ring
Age 15 years, formation of the epiphyseal rim
What large opening is usually observed at the back of the vertebral body?
The basivertebral venous foramen
What is the semicircular region of the bone attached to the back of the vertebral body called?
The vertebral arch
What is the generic orientation of the pedicle at each region of the spine?
Cervical - posterolateral
Thoracic - posterior, slight lateral
Lumbar - posterior
What ligament will attach to the lamina?
The ligamentum flavum
What is the name given to abnormal bone at the attachment site of the ligamentum flavum?
What classification of bone will para-articular processes represent?
What is the name given to the overlap of laminae seen on x-Ray?
What is the name given to the lamina - pedicle junction at each region of the spine?
Cervical - articular pillar; thoracic and lumbar - pars interarticularis
What is the name given to the junction of the vertebral arch - spinous process on lateral x-Ray?
The spinolaminar junction
All non-rib-bearing vertebra of the spine retain what equivalent feature?
The costal element