Flashcards in Exam Two Study Questions Deck (300)
What will influence spinal kinematics?
Geometry of articular facets, mechanical properties of connective tissue, mechanical properties of muscle
What should be carefully considered when applying research results to a population?
The condition of the subject material (fresh cadaver, fixed cadaver, living subject)
The age of the population studied
The method of measurment (X-ray, goniometer, MRI, CT, etc)
The greatest range of flexion-extension among the typical cervical vertebrae occurs at which vertebral couple?
What motions are coupled in the cervical spine?
Lateral bending and axial rotation
Ranges of coupled motion among the typical cervical vertebrae will be similar for what cervical vertebral couples?
The C2/C3, C3/C4, C4/C5 vertebral couples
Ranges of coupled motion among the typical cervical vertebrae will begin to decrease at what cervical vertebral couple?
The C5/C6 vertebral couple
What is the usual condition for the Caucasian typical cervical spinous process?
They are bifid
What is the usual condition for the African-American typical cervical spinous process?
They are non-bifid
What is the osseous modification at the distal end of the spinous process?
The spinous tubercle
What muscles may attach the typical cervical spinous process?
The spinalis cervicis, semispinalis cervicis, semispinalis thoracis, multifidis, rotators and interspinalis
What ligaments will attach to the typical cervical spinous process?
The interspinous ligament and ligamentum nuchae
What will form the unique anterior boundary of a typical cervical intervertebral foramen?
The uncinate process of the segment below and lateral groove of the segment above forms the joint of Luschka
What forms the unique anterior boundary of the intervertebral foramen for the C4 spinal nerve?
The lateral groove of C3 and the uncinate process of C4 forming the joint of Luschka
What muscle attaches to the anterior arch of C1?
What ligaments will attach to the anterior arch of C1?
The anterior longitudinal, anterior atlanto-occibital and anterior atlanto-axial ligaments
What is observed on the back of the anterior arch of C1?
The fovea dentis
WHat joint classificationis are observed on the anterior arch of C1?
Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint and synovial (diarthrosis) trochoid joint
What is the morphology of the superior articular facet of C1?
They are elliptical, closer together in front and often demonstrate an elevation subdividing the facet surface into two separate surfaces
What is the orientation of the superior articular facet of C1?
Backward, upward, medial (BUM)
What is the joint classification of the atlanto-occipital zygapophysis?
Synovial (diarthrosis) ellipsoidal joint
What are the morphological characteristics of the inferior articular facet of C1?
Asymmetrical, slightly concave or flattened
What is the orientation of the inferior articlar facet of C1?
Backward, medial, downward (BMD)
What is the joint classification of the atlanto-axial zygapophysis?
Synovial (diarthrosis) arthrodia joint
What muscles attach to the lateral mass of C1?
Levator scapula, splenius cervicis and rectus capitis anterior
What is the distance from the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch to the skin in each gender?
Males: about fifty milimeters; Females: about thirty-seven millimeters
What attaches to the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch of C1?
Rects capitis posterior minor muscle and ligamentum nuchae
What is the earliest age of development where ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament was observed?
About age 7 years old
What other name may be used to identify a ponticulus posticus?
What names are given to the opening formed y the ponticulus posticus?
Arcuate foramen or retroarticular canal