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What will influence spinal kinematics?

Geometry of articular facets, mechanical properties of connective tissue, mechanical properties of muscle

1

What should be carefully considered when applying research results to a population?

The condition of the subject material (fresh cadaver, fixed cadaver, living subject)

The age of the population studied

The method of measurment (X-ray, goniometer, MRI, CT, etc)

2

The greatest range of flexion-extension among the typical cervical vertebrae occurs at which vertebral couple?

Typically C5/C6

3

What motions are coupled in the cervical spine?

Lateral bending and axial rotation

4

Ranges of coupled motion among the typical cervical vertebrae will be similar for what cervical vertebral couples?

The C2/C3, C3/C4, C4/C5 vertebral couples

5

Ranges of coupled motion among the typical cervical vertebrae will begin to decrease at what cervical vertebral couple?

The C5/C6 vertebral couple

6

What is the usual condition for the Caucasian typical cervical spinous process?

They are bifid

7

What is the usual condition for the African-American typical cervical spinous process?

They are non-bifid

8

What is the osseous modification at the distal end of the spinous process?

The spinous tubercle

9

What muscles may attach the typical cervical spinous process?

The spinalis cervicis, semispinalis cervicis, semispinalis thoracis, multifidis, rotators and interspinalis

10

What ligaments will attach to the typical cervical spinous process?

The interspinous ligament and ligamentum nuchae

11

What will form the unique anterior boundary of a typical cervical intervertebral foramen?

The uncinate process of the segment below and lateral groove of the segment above forms the joint of Luschka

12

What forms the unique anterior boundary of the intervertebral foramen for the C4 spinal nerve?

The lateral groove of C3 and the uncinate process of C4 forming the joint of Luschka

13

What muscle attaches to the anterior arch of C1?

Longus colli

14

What ligaments will attach to the anterior arch of C1?

The anterior longitudinal, anterior atlanto-occibital and anterior atlanto-axial ligaments

15

What is observed on the back of the anterior arch of C1?

The fovea dentis

16

WHat joint classificationis are observed on the anterior arch of C1?

Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint and synovial (diarthrosis) trochoid joint

17

What is the morphology of the superior articular facet of C1?

They are elliptical, closer together in front and often demonstrate an elevation subdividing the facet surface into two separate surfaces

18

What is the orientation of the superior articular facet of C1?

Backward, upward, medial (BUM)

19

What is the joint classification of the atlanto-occipital zygapophysis?

Synovial (diarthrosis) ellipsoidal joint

20

What are the morphological characteristics of the inferior articular facet of C1?

Asymmetrical, slightly concave or flattened

21

What is the orientation of the inferior articlar facet of C1?

Backward, medial, downward (BMD)

22

What is the joint classification of the atlanto-axial zygapophysis?

Synovial (diarthrosis) arthrodia joint

23

What muscles attach to the lateral mass of C1?

Levator scapula, splenius cervicis and rectus capitis anterior

24

What is the distance from the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch to the skin in each gender?

Males: about fifty milimeters; Females: about thirty-seven millimeters

25

What attaches to the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch of C1?

Rects capitis posterior minor muscle and ligamentum nuchae

26

What is the earliest age of development where ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament was observed?

About age 7 years old

27

What other name may be used to identify a ponticulus posticus?

Kimmerle's anomaly

28

What names are given to the opening formed y the ponticulus posticus?

Arcuate foramen or retroarticular canal

29

What is the gender bias now associated with ponticulus posticus?

Female