Headaches Flashcards Preview

Neurology > Headaches > Flashcards

Flashcards in Headaches Deck (84):
1

 

 

What are the main types of primary headache?

 

  • Migraine
  • Tension Headache
  • Autonomic cephalgias

2

 

 

What are main types of secondary headache?

 

  • Thunderclap headache
  • Postural headaches
  • Associated with CNS infection
  • Asscoiated with Systemic illness

3

 

 

What are features of migranous aura?

  • Visual Aura
    • Positive - Fortification spectra, scintillations, spots
    • Negative - visual field loss
  • Sensory Aura - spreading unilateral numness - Fingers to face
  • Motor - ataxia, dysarthria, opthalmoplegia, hemiparesis
  • Speech - dysphasia/paraphasia
  • Migranous Vertigo
  • Speech Distrubance
  • Neck/limb pain
  • Hemiplegic migraine

4

What is the following?

 

 

Fortification spectra

5

 

 

What type of visual field defects are seen in migraines?

 

  • Scotoma
  • Hemianopia/tunnel vision

6

 

 

What is hemiplegic migraine?

 

This rare autosomal dominant disorder causes a hemiparesis and/or coma and headache, with recovery within 24 hours. Some patients have permanent cerebellar signs as it is allelic with episodic ataxia. It is distinct from commoner forms of migraine.

7

 

 

What is the mechanism behind migraine development?

 

  1. Spreading cortical depression (causing aura) – wave depolarization followed by depressed activity spreading anteriorly across cortex from the occipital region 
  2. Activation of trigeminal pain neurones (causing headache) - Release of CGRP, substance P and other vasoactive peptides by activated trigeminovascular neurones causes painful meningeal inflammation and vasodilation.
  3. Peripheral and central sensitization of trigeminal neurones and brainstem - makes innocuous sensory stimuli (such as CSF pulsation and head movement) painful and light and sound perceived as uncomfortable.

8

 

 

What are partial triggers of migraine?

 

  • Chocolate
  • Hangovers
  • Orgasms
  • Cheese/caffeine
  • Oral contraceptives
  • Lie-ins
  • Alcohol
  • Travel
  • Exercise

9

 

 

What are negative visual aura symptoms?

 

 

Visual field loss

10

 

 

What are the 3 main areas of migraine treatment?

 

  • Lifestyle
  • Acute treatment
  • Preventative treatment

11

 

 

What are positive visual aura symptoms?

 

  • Fortification spectra
  • Scintillations
  • Scotoma
  • Hemianopia
  • Chaotic distortion

12

 

 

What are sensory features of migraine aura?

 

 

Spreading unilateral numbness - over minutes, spreading fingers to face

13

 

 

What are motor features of a migraine aura?

 

  • Dysarthria + Ataxia
  • Opthalmoplegia
  • Hemiparesis

14

 

 

What proportion of migraine sufferers have aura preceding an attack?

 

 

25%

15

 

 

What are features of the prodromal phase of a migraine?

 

  • Mood changes
  • Fatigue
  • Cognitive changes
  • Muscle pain
  • Food craving

16

 

 

Which sex is migraines more common in?

 

 

Females - 3:1

17

 

 

What are features of a migraine?

 

  • Severe unilateral headache
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Photophobia/Phonophobia/Osmophobia
  • Allodynia

18

 

 

What are the diagnostic crtieria for diagnosing migraine?

>/=5 headaches lasting 4-72 hrs + nausea/vomiting (or photo/phonophobia), plus any two of:

  • Pulsating/Throbbing
  • Impairs routine activity

19

 

 

What changes in routine can cause increased migraines?

 

  • Sleep disturbance
  • Stress
  • Hormonal factors - menstruation, pregnancy, menopause, OCP
  • Eating - skipping meals/alcohol
  • Sensory stimuli

20

 

 

What would be your differential be for a migrainous type headache?

 

  • Cluster/tension headache
  • Cervical spondylosis
  • Hypertension headache
  • Intracranial pathology
  • Sinusitis/otitis media
  • TIA

21

 

 

What lifestyle advise would you give someone suffering from migraines?

 

  • Avoid food triggers
  • Sleep
  • Hydration
  • Regular meals
  • Look at meds - overuse headache?

22

 

 

What treatment would you prescribe someone with migraines for acute attacks?

Stop regular opiates/paracetamol

  • 1st line - Combination therapy Oral triptan + NSAID/Paracetamol
  • If monotherapy preferred
    • Triptan
    • NSAID
    • Aspirin - 900 mg every 4–6 hours
    • Paracetamol
  • Consider anti-emetics

 

https://cks.nice.org.uk/migraine#!scenario

23

 

 

What are contraindications of triptan use?

 

  • IHD
  • Coronary Spasm
  • Uncontrolled HTN
  • Recent Lithium use
  • SSRI use
  • Ergot use

24

 

 

What would you prescribe for prophylactic management of migraines?

 

  • 1st lines - Propranolol or topiramate
  • Amitryptiline
  • Candesartan
  • Others - valproate, pizotifen, pregabalin, ACEi

25

 

 

What dose of propranalol would you start someone on for prophylactic management of migraines?

 

 

40mg daily for 2 weeks, then increase to 80mg daily

26

 

 

What dose of topiramate would you start someone on as prophylactic treatment of migraine?

 

 

25mg daily, increase by 25mg every 2 weeks up to 75 mg

27

 

 

What dose would you start amitryptyline on for prophylactic treatment of migraine?

 

 

10mg nightly, increase by 10 mg weekly up to 75 mg

28

 

 

What are women with migraines at risk of if on OCP?

 

 

Increased stroke risk

29

 

 

What would you give as oral contraception in women with migraines?

 

  1. POP
  2. Non-hormonal contraception

30

 

 

What are tension type headaches?

 

In contrast to migraine, pain is usually mild to moderate severity, bilateral and relatively featureless, with tight band sensations, pressure behind the eyes, and bursting sensations being described.

 

31

 

 

How would you manage tension type headaches?

 

  • Simple analgesia - don't encourage overuse

32

 

 

What is a cluster headache?

 

Recurrent bouts (clusters) of excruciating unilateral retro-orbital pain with parasympathetic autonomic activation in the same eye causing redness or tearing of the eye, nasal congestion or even a transient Horner’s syndrome

33

Describe the following features of SUNCT headaches:

  • Duration
  • Onset
  • Frequency

 

  • Duration - 2-250s
  • Onset - Rapid
  • Frequency - 1/day - 30/hr

34

Describe the following features of a cluster headache:

  • Duration
  • Onset
  • Frequency

 

  • Duration - 15 mins - 3 hrs
  • Onset - Rapid
  • Frequency - 1 every other - 8/day

35

 

 

What are features of a cluster headache?

Suicide headache

  • Rapid onset excruciating pain around one eye
    • Restless patient
  • Prominent ipsilateral autonomic symptoms
    • Conjunctival injection / lacrimation
    • Nasal congestion / rhinorrhoea
    • Eyelid oedema
    • Forehead & facial sweating
    • Miosis / ptosis (Horner’s syndrome)

36

 

 

In terms of yearly time course, what are the distinct features of cluster headaches?

 

 

Clusters last 4-12 weeks, then have headache free periods of months to 1-2 years

 

37

 

 

How would you manage cluster headaches acutely?

Acute

  • Give high flow oxygen - non re-breath mask
  • Triptan injection

38

 

 

How would you manage cluster headaches prophylactically?

 

  • Verapamil
  • Topiramate

39

 

 

What is SUNCT?

Short-lasting Unilateral Neuralgiform headaches with Conjunctival injection and Tearing

 

A rare headache disorder that belongs to the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). Symptoms include excruciating burning, stabbing, or electrical headaches mainly near the eye and typically these sensations are only on one side of the body. The headache attacks are typically accompanied by cranial autonomic signs that are unique to SUNCT. Each attack can last from five seconds to six minutes and may occur up to 200 times daily.

40

 

 

What are features of SUNCT?

 

  • Severe unilateral headache - stabs, sawtooth
    • Restless patient
  • Prominent ipsilateral autonomic symptoms
    • Conjunctival injection / lacrimation
    • Nasal congestion / rhinorrhoea
    • Eyelid oedema
    • Forehead & facial sweating
    • Miosis / ptosis (Horner’s syndrome)

 

41

 

 

In terms of daily time course, what are features of cluster headaches?

 

  • Attacks occur at the same time each day
  • Bouts occur at the same time each year

42

 

 

How would you manage someone with SUNCT?

 

  • Lamotragine
  • Topiramate
  • Gabapentin

43

 

 

What can trigger SUNCT?

 

 

Cutaneous contact

44

 

 

What percentage of those with SUNCT have chronic SUNCT?

 

 

70%

45

Desribe the following features of paroxysmal hemicrania:

  • Duration
  • Onset
  • Frequency

 

 

  • Duration - 2- 45mins
  • Onset - rapid
  • Frequency - 1-40/day

46

 

 

What are features of paroxysmal hemicrania?

 

  • Excruciatingly severe headache - unilateral
    • Restless patient
  • Prominent ipsilateral autonomic symptoms
    • ​​​Conjunctival injection / lacrimation
    • Nasal congestion / rhinorrhoea
    • Eyelid oedema
    • Forehead & facial sweating
    • Miosis / ptosis (Horner’s syndrome)

 

47

 

 

How do you distinguish between cluster headaches and paroxysmal hemicrania?

 

 

Duration and Frequency - PH is shorter duration (2-30 mins) and higher frequency per day (2-40 per day)

48

 

 

What can paroxysmal hemicrania attack be precipitated by?

 

 

Bending or rotating head

49

 

 

How would you manage someone with paroxysmal hemicrania?

 

  • Indomethicin

50

 

 

What are the autonomic cephalgias?

 

  • Cluster headaches
  • SUNCT
  • Paroxysmal hemicrania

51

 

 

What is a cervicogenic headache?

 

A chronic headache arising from the atlanto-occipital and upper cervical joints and perceived in one or more regions of the head and/or face. These occur due to a neck disorder or lesion and feature the converging of trigeminal and cervical afferents in the trigeminocervical nucleus within the upper cervical spinal cord.

52

 

 

What are features of a cervicogenic headache?

 

  • Unilateral dominant headache - Exacerbated by neck movement or posture
  • Tenderness of the upper cervical spine joints
  • Weakness - deep neck flexors

 

 

53

 

 

How would you manage cervicogenic headache?

 

  • Amitryptilline
  • Physiotherapy

54

 

 

What clinical examinations would you perform in someone presenting with headache?

 

  • General/systemic
  • Cranial nerve - mainly eyes
  • Limb Examination - weakness, coordination, reflexes

55

 

 

What CNS infections can present with headache?

 

  • Meningitis
  • Viral encephalitis

56

 

 

If someone had chronic headache which was worse on lying flat, and improved on sitting up, what might this indicate?

 

 

Riased ICP

57

 

 

What are features of raised pressure headaches?

 

  • Worse on lying flat, improved on sitting / standing up
  • Worse in the morning
  • Worse on valsalva 
  • Worse with physical exertion
  • Vomiting without nausea
  • Transient visual obscurations with change in posture

 

58

 

 

If someone had a headache which was worse on lying down, whilst doing any valsalva maneuvre, and was worse in the mornings, what might you expect to find on examination?

 

  • Optic disc swelling – papilloedema
  • Restricted visual fields / enlarged blind spot
  • VIth nerve palsy - false localising sign
  • Focal neurological signs

59

 

 

What are mass effect causes of raised ICP?

 

  • Tumour
  • Infarction with oedema
  • Subdural/extradural/intracerebral haematoma
  • Abscess

60

 

 

What venous problems can cause raised ICP?

 

  • Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis
  • Obstruction of jugular venous system

61

 

 

What CSF problems can cause raised ICP?

 

  • Hydrocephalus
  • Meningitis

62

 

 

What idiopathic processes can cause raised ICP?

 

 

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension

63

 

 

What are features of low-pressure headaches?

 

Orthostatic headaches - Headache worse on sitting / standing up and relieved by lying down

64

 

 

What are causes of low-pressure headaches?

 

  • Post LP
  • Spontaneous intracranial hypotension - following dural tear

65

 

 

What investigations would you consider in someone with features of raise ICP?

 

  • CT head
  • CT/MR Venogram - rule out venous sinus thrombosis
  • Consider LP - after imaging!!!! risk of coning

66

 

 

If someone had features of a SOL, and they're imaging showed no features of mass lesion, venous sinus thrombosis or hydrocephalus, what would you consider as the diagnosis?

 

 

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension

67

 

 

If someone presented with a headache and a red, painful eye +/- reduced vision, what diagnosis would you want to rule out?

 

 

Acute angle glaucoma

68

 

 

If someone presented with a temporal headache and jaw claudication, what diagnosis would you want to rule out?

 

 

Giant cell arteritis

69

 

 

If someone presented with a headache which felt like a tight band around their head, what might you suspect to be the cause?

 

 

Tension headache

70

 

 

What are causes of medication overuse headaches?

 

  • Mixed analgesia - Paracetamol + opiates
  • Ergotamines
  • Triptans
  • Caffeine

For medications, more at risk if using analgesia for > 10 days

71

 

 

In terms of management of migraines, what medications should you avoid using when they are of childbearing age?

 

 

Anti-epileptics - valproate

72

 

 

What are migraneurs more at risk of if they are pregnant?

 

 

Pre-eclampsia/eclampsia

73

 

 

What is idiopathic intracranial hypertension?

 

 

Increased intracranial pressure caused by reduced CSF resorption

74

 

 

Who does Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension occur most commonly in?

 

 

Younger overweight female patients, many of whom have polycystic ovaries

75

 

 

How does Idiopathic intracranial hypertension present?

Raised ICP headache features

  • Positional Headaches - worse on lying, bending over
  • Transient visual obscurations - florid papilloedema
  • VIth nerve palsy - false localizing sign

76

 

 

What investigations might you do in someone with suspected intracranial hypertension?

 

  • Imaging - Exclude SOL
  • Consider LP - Opening pressure
    • If Safe to do so

77

 

 

How would you try to minimise medication overuse headache in someone using simple analgesia for tension type headache?

 

Limit to 10 days per month (~2 days per week) to avoid the development of medication overuse headache

78

 

 

What is medication overuse headache?

 

Headache present on ≥15 days / month which has developed or worsened whilst taking regular symptomatic medication

79

 

 

Which of the Autonomic cephalgias are there no abortive treatments for?

 

  • SUNCT
  • Paroxysmal Hemicrania

80

 

 

How would you manage low-pressure headaches?

Significant number resolve spontaneously

  • Bed rest
  • Fluids
  • Analgesia
  • Oral/IV caffeine
  • Epidural blood patch

81

 

 

How would you manage someone with Idiopathic intracranial hypertension?

Usually self-limiting

  • Regular monitoring of visual fields with perimetry
  • Reduce CSF
    • Repeated LP
    • Acetazolamide
    • Thiazide diuretics 
  • Consider surgery
    • Ventriculoperitoneal shunt
    • Optic nerve sheath fenestration

82

 

 

What are secondary causes of intracranial hypertension?

 

  • Drugs (tetracycline, Vit A)
  • Sleep apnea
  • Chronic renal failure
  • Addisons disease,
  • Cushings disease, 
  • Hypoparathyroidism

83

 

 

What are red flags to ask about when someone is presenting with a headache?

 

  • Intracranial bleed - thunderclap, recent trauma
  • Raised ICP - increases with posture change
  • SOL - immunosuppression, malignancy, focal neurology, onset > 50
  • Meningitis - neck stiffness, phtophobia, fever, rash
  • Glaucoma - red eye, visual disturbance, halos

84

 

 

What antiemetics are good for using in migraines?

 

  • Metoclopramide hydrochloride
  • Domperidone
  • Phenothiazine
  • Antihistamine antiemetics - cyclizine