Infection - Meningitis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Infection - Meningitis Deck (87):
1

 

 

What is meningism?

Triad of:

  • Headache
  • Photophobia
  • Neck rigidity

2

 

 

What is meningitis?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gIHUJs2eTHA

 

Usually inflammation of the meninges

3

 

 

What is the pathophysiology behind bacterial meningitis?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xQC6L8M6XfU

Inflammation of the meninges, usually result of infection

Involves at least five steps:

  • Attachment to mucosal epithelial cells
  • Transgression of the mucosal barrier
  • Survival in the blood stream
  • Entry into CSF
  • Production of overt infection in the meninges +/- brain infection (encephalitis).

4

 

 

What are the 3 layers of the meninges (from outermost to inner most)?

 

  1. Dura Mater
  2. Arachnoid Mater
  3. Pia Mater

6

 

 

What is normally the cause of death in meningitis?

 

 

Sepsis - not the actual meningeal inflammation

7

 

 

What routes do organisms reach the meninges by?

Either by:

  • Direct extension from the ears, nasopharynx, cranial injury or congenital meningeal defect
  •  Haematogenous spread.

8

 

 

What are the main causes of meningism?

 

  • Meningitis
  • Sub-arachnoid Haemorrhage
  • Malignancy
  • Autoimmune disease

9

 

 

When assessing neck stiffness, what key finding would indicate meningeal irritation?

 

 

Stiffness on flexion. If on rotation, more likely to be caused by cervical problem like spondylosis

10

 

 

What are bacterial causes of meningitis?

 

  • Neisseria Meningitidis
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus)
  • E. coli  
  • Group B streptococci

11

 

 

What other conditions can mimic meningitis?

 

  • Cervical spondylosis
  • Cervical fusion
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Raised ICP - esp if there is impending tonsillar herniation.
  • Acute dystonic reaction
  • Tetanus

12

 

 

What are viral causes of meningitis?

 

  • Enteroviruses
  • Echoviruses
  • Parechoviruses
  • Coxsackie A and B
  • Poliovirus
  • Mumps
  • Herpes simplex virus

13

 

 

What are the most common causes of bacterial meningitis in neonates (<1 month)?

 

  • E. Coli and other coliforms
  • Group B Strep
  • Listeria Monocytogenes

14

 

 

What are the most common causes of bacterial meningitis in 3 month to 6 year olds?

 

  • Nisseria Meningitidis
  • Streptococcus Pneumoniae
  • Haemaphilus Influenzae
  • Group A strep.
  • Staph. aureus

15

 

 

What are the most common causes of bacterial meningtis in those over the age of 6?

 

  • Neisseria Meningitidis
  • Strep. Pneumoniae

16

 

 

Which patient groups is listeria meningitis more common in?

 

  • Immunocompromised
  • Neonates
  • Over age of 50

17

 

 

What are symptoms seen in meningitis in adults?

 

  • Headache
  • Irritability
  • Stiff neck
  • Photophobia
  • Fever/Rigors
  • Altered level of consciousness
  • Vomiting
  • SEIZURES

 

18

 

 

What fungi can cause meningitis?

 

  • Cryptococcus neoformans
  • Candida albicans

19

 

 

What are symptoms of meningitis in a child/neonate?

 

 

Can be vague symptoms:

  • Lethargy
  • Malaise
  • Vomiting
  • Poor feeding
  • Irritability

20

 

 

What ENT problems can lead to meningitis?

 

  • Otitis Media
  • Sinusitis

21

 

 

What signs can present in meningitis?

  • Pyrexia
  • Tachycardia
  • Signs of shock - cool peripheries, decreased BP
  • Cranial nerve palsies
  • Petechial Rash
  • Kernig's Sign
  • Brudzinski's Sign
  • Jolt accentuation
  • Opisthotonos

22

 

 

What is Brudzinski's Sign?

 

With the patient in the supine position, passive neck flexion results in active hip flexion and knee flexion.

23

 

 

What is thought to be the mechanism behind brudzinski's Sign?

 

Passive neck flexion results in mechanical stress on the spinal nerves and the arachnoid mater, which may be somewhat alleviated by active hip flexion and knee flexion. When the subarachnoid space is inflamed, as with meningitis, mechanical forces on the arachnoid mater result in tenderness and an attempt to alleviate pain (hip flexion, knee flexion)

24

 

 

What is Kernig's Sign?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YgRX3IUaaeE

With the patient lying supine with the hip flexed to 90°, the examiner attempts to passively extend the knee from 90°. Resistance to passive knee extension at less than 135° is considered a positive sign.

25

 

 

What is the mechanism of Kernig's Sign?

 

Passive extension of the knee with the hip at 90° results in mechanical stress on the spinal nerves, arachnoid mater and subarachnoid space. When the subarachnoid space is inflamed, as in meningitis, mechanical forces on the arachnoid mater result in resistance to further movement to prevent worsening discomfort.

26

 

 

What is jolt accentuation?

 

Rapid horizontal rotation of the neck (2–3 Hz) in a patient with suspected meningeal irritation results in exacerbation of pre-existing headache.

Rotational and centrifugal forces upon inflamed meninges are thought to exacerbate cephalgia when meningeal irritation is present.

28

What is the following?

 

 

Non-blanching petechial rash

32

 

 

What is photophobia?

 

Photophobia is light-induced ocular and/or cephalic discomfort. The patient exhibits discomfort and aversion to light stimuli, resulting in involuntary eye closure and/or gaze deviation.

33

 

 

What is characteristic about the petechial rash seen in certain types of meningitis?

 

 

It is non-blanching

35

 

 

If someone was showing signs of meningism, and had papilloedema, what would this indicate?

 

Unusual in meningitis and should lead one to consider an intracranial SOL (eg, brain abscess or tuberculoma).

36

 

 

What is opisthotonos?

 

Spasm of the muscles causing backward arching of the head, neck, and spine, as in severe tetanus, some kinds of meningitis, and strychnine poisoning

37

 

 

In meningococcal disease, how quickly do symptoms take to develop?

 

 

4-6 hours

38

 

 

With pneumococcal meningitis, how long does it take for symptoms to develop?

 

 

1-2 days

39

 

 

Which organism is the most common cause of meningitis with petechial rash?

 

 

Meningococcal meningitis

40

 

 

What is the mechanism behind the development of petechial rash in meningitis?

 

 

Coagulopathy caused by infection

41

 

 

How would you manage someone with viral meningitis?

Symptomatic control:

  • Ibuprofen/calpol - to reduce fever.

42

 

 

What are malignant causes of meningitis?

 

  • Leukaemia
  • Lymphoma
  • Breast cancer
  • Bronchial cancer

44

 

 

What are the earliest features of meningitis?

 

  • Headache
  • Leg Pains
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Abnormal skin colour

45

 

 

In someone with meningitis, what are signs of septic shock?

  • Cap refill > 2 seconds
  • Unusual skin colour/mottled skin
  • Tachycardia +/- hypotension
  • Respiratory symptoms or breathing difficulty
  • Leg pain
  • Cold hands/feet
  • Toxic/moribund state
  • Altered mental state/decreased conscious level
  • Poor urine output

46

 

 

What are features of TB meningitis?

 

Usually presents subacutely as meningism and low grade fever who has active extrameningeal tuberculosis

  • Lethargy
  • Chronic headache
  • Change in mentation
  • Cranial nerve palsies

 

47

 

 

What are features of fungal meningitis?

Subacute onset of symptoms

  • Low grade fever
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Lethargy
  • Confusion
  • Abdominal pain.

Meningism less common - can develop quickly as the condition progresses

48

 

 

What groups of patients does fungal meningitis occur in?

 

 

Immunocompromised - HIV positive, malignancy, organ transplant

49

 

 

What percentage of those with bacterial meningitis are under the age of 16?

 

 

80%

50

 

 

If a newborn develops meningitis within the first 72 hours of life, what is the most likely source of infection?

 

 

Usually acquired from mother genital tract at birth

 

51

 

 

What investigations would you do if you suspected meningitis?

Look for source of infection, severity and signs of complication/organ dysfunction

  • Bloods - FBC, U+E's, CRP, LFTs, ABGs, Blood cultures, Coagulation Screening
  • Blood Glucose
  • Throat Swab
  • Urine Dipstick
  • Lumbar Puncture
  • ?CT/MRI

52

 

 

What extra investigations would you perform if you suspected TB to be the cause of a meningitis?

 

  • Chest x-ray
  • Mantoux test

53

 

 

What might you see on LP in someone with bacterial meningitis?

 

  • Turbid appearence
  • Neutrophil predominant WCC
  • Reduced glucose, decreased CSF/Serum ratio
  • Greatly increased protein
  • Increased opening pressure

54

 

 

What are characteristics on LP investigation for Viral meningitis?

 

  • Clear to turbid
  • Lymphocyte predominant WCC
  • Normal glucose
  • Moderate increased protein
  • Normal or mildly increased opening pressure

55

 

 

What are features of fungal/TB meningitis on LP analysis?

 

  • Clear/Turbid appearence
  • Lymphocyte/mixed WCC
  • Reduced glucose
  • Greatly increased protein

56

 

 

What are the main features of meningococcal septicaemia?

 

  • Fever,
  • Petechiae/purpura
  • Toxicity

57

 

 

What might you see on FBC when investigating for meningitis?

 

  • Neutrophil leucocytosis**
  • DIC - Thrombocytopaenia, abnormal clotting, increased FDP

**White cell count may be decreased in septicaemia and DIC

58

 

 

What are haematological features of DIC (on coagulation screening)?

 

  • Increased INR, APTT and thrombin time
  • Thrombocytopenia
  • Abnormal clotting factors
  • Increased FDP - D-dimer

59

 

 

Why might you do U+E's in someone with meningitis?

 

 

To assess for signs of kidney failure

60

 

 

How would you initially assess someone with suspected bacterial meningitis?

ABCD

  • Airway
  • Breathing - Respiratory rate & O2 saturation
  • Circulation - Pulse; capillary refill time; urine output; blood pressure (hypotension occurs late)
  • Disability - Glasgow coma scale; focal neurological signs; seizures; papilloedema; capillary glucose

Senior review +/- Critical Care review if any Warning Signs are present

61

 

 

What are clinical signs of raised ICP?

 

  • Reduced (GCS≤8) or fluctuating level of consciousness
  • Relative Bradycardia and Hypertension
  • Focal neurological signs
  • Abnormal posture or posturing
  • Seizures
  • Unequal, dilated or poorly responsive pupils
  • Papilloedema (late sign)
  • Abnormal ‘doll’s eye’ movements

62

 

 

Why would you do LFTs in someone with meningitis?

 

 

Look for liver failure as part of multisystem organ failure

63

 

 

What might you do coagulation screening for?

 

 

Check for features of DIC

64

 

 

What might you see on ABG in someone with meningitis?

 

 

Lactic acidosis and increased LDH

65

 

 

What dose of dexamethasone would you give someone presenting with features of bacterial meningitis?

 

 

10 mg/6h IV - for 4 days

67

 

 

How long would you treat someone with antibiotics with confirmed meningococcal meningitis?

 

 

IV ceftriaxone - 7 days

68

 

 

How long would you treat someone with confirmed H. influenzae meningitis?

 

 

IV ceftriaxone - 10 days

71

 

 

If someone over the age of 55 presented with suspected bacterial meningitis, what antibiotic therapy would you use?

 

 

Ceftriaxone + Amoxicillin*

*Vancomycin if penicillin allergic

72

 

 

What are common microbiology tests performed on CSF?

 

  • Gram stain (and ZN if appropriate)
  • Differential cell count
  • Antigen detection test (latex agglutination)
  • Bacterial culture
  • Mycobacterial or fungal culture (if appropriate)
  • PCR for viruses (if appropriate)
  • PCR for bacteria (if appropriate)

73

 

 

If someone was penicillin allergic, and had bacterial meningitis, what would you treat them with?

 

 

Chloramphenicol - 12.5-25mg/kg 6hrly IV

74

 

 

What LP results would indicate subarachnoid haemorrhage?

 

  • Bloodstained CSF
  • After centrifugation - supernatant has a golden-yellow tinge due to haemoglobin breakdown and is described as xanthochromic.

75

 

 

How would you tell if a CSF sample is bloodstained due to subarachnoid haemorrhage or due to operator error?

 

If operator strikes a blood vessel -“bloody tap” - first specimen collected is more bloodstained than subsequent ones and there is no xanthochromia on centrifugation.

76

 

 

How would you manage suspected bacterial meningitis in the community?

 

 

Initiate antibiotic treatment as soon as meningococcal infection is suspected (within 30 minutes of arrival!):

  • Benzylpenicillin - parenteral

79

 

 

If someone had HSV meningoencephalitis, what would you treat them with?

 

 

Aciclovir

80

 

 

What are contraindications to performing an LP?

 

  • Clinical/radiological signs of raised ICP
  • Shock
  • After convulsions until stabilised
  • Coagulation abnormalities
  • Local superficial infection at LP site
  • Respiratory insufficiency

.

81

 

 

Why would you consider giving ampicillin/amoxicillin plus cefotaxime to those under the age of 3 months for suspected bacterial meningitis?

 

 

To cover for listeria infection

82

 

 

If someone presented with suspected meningits without signs of shock, severe sepsis or signs of brain shift, how would you manage them?

 

  • Blood cultures
  • IV Antibiotics - Ceftriaxone - 2g/12 hrs
  • Lumbar puncture
  • Dexamethasone - 10 mg IV
  • Careful fluid management

 

83

 

 

If someone presented with suspected meningitis and signs of brain shift/increased ICP, how would you manage them?

 

  • Get Critical Care input
  • Secure airway, high flow oxygen
  • Take bloods inc. Blood Cultures
  • Give Ceftriaxone - 2g IV immediately after blood cultures taken
  • Dexamethasone - 10mg IV
  • Delay LP until neurological imaging - once patient is stabilised

84

 

 

If someone presented with supected meningitis and was showing signs of septic shock or a rapidly evolving rash, how would you manage them?

 

  • Get Critical Care input
  • Secure airway and give high flow oxygen
  • Fluid resuscitation
  • Blood Cultures
  • Ceftriaxone - 2g IV immediately after blood cultures
  • Delay LP

85

 

 

What are warning signs that you may need critical care input for managing someone with meningitis?

  • Rapidly progressive rash
  • Poor peripheral perfusion - Capillary refill time > 4 secs, oliguria or systolic BP < 90mmHg
  • Respiratory rate < 8 or >30 / min
  • Pulse rate < 40 or >140 / min
  • Acidosis pH < 7.3 or Base excess worse than -5
  • White blood cell count < 4 x 109/L
  • Lactate > 4 mmol/L
  • GCS <12 or a drop of 2 points
  • Poor response to initial fluid resus

86

 

 

When would you consider giving dexamethasone in bacterial meningitis?

For suspected or confirmed bacterial meningitis if lumbar puncture reveals any of the following:

  • Frankly purulent CSF
  • WBC count greater than 1000/microlitre
  • Raised WBC count + protein concentration >1 g/litre
  • Bacteria on Gram stain

88

 

 

What dose of ceftriaxone would you give someone with suspected bacterial meningitis?

 

 

2g IV/12hrs

91

 

 

How long would you treat someone with antibiotics for with confirmed pneumococcal meningitis?

 

 

IV ceftriaxone - 14 days

92

 

 

What antibiotics would you give for unconfirmed bacterial meningitis?

 

  • <3 months age - Cefotaxime + Amoxicillin/Ampicillin
  • >3 months age - Ceftriaxone

94

 

 

What percentage of those with meningococcal meningitis die within the first 24 hrs?

 

 

50%

96

 

 

What is important to do if someone is diagnosed with meningococcal meningitis from a public health point of view?

 

  • Notify public health
  • Contact screening
  • Immunisation programmes
  • Prophylactic antibiotics - all household contacts

97

 

 

What prophylactic antibiotics can be used for prophylactic treatment of meningococcal meningitis?

Eradicate n. meningitidis from nasopharynx

  • Rifampicin
  • Ciprofloxacin

98

 

 

 

What complications can occur from bacterial meningitis?

 

  • Hearing loss
  • Vasculitis – can cause cranial nerve lesions
  • Cerebral Infarct
  • Subdural effusion
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Cerebral abscess
  • Seizures
  • Complications from sepsis - limb loss

99

 

 

Why is dexamethasone given in bacterial meningitis?

 

 

To reduce risk of long term complications - especially deafness

100

 

 

What would be your differential diagnosis for someone presenting with features of meningitis?

 

  • Malaria
  • Encephalitis
  • Septicaemia
  • Subarachnoid haemorrhage
  • Dengue fever
  • Tetanus

102

 

 

What antibiotics would you give for someone with fungal meningitis?

 

  • Amphotericin
  • Fluclonazole

103

 

 

What are high risk groups for neonatal GBS meningitis who may require prophylactic antibiotics?

 

  • Pre-term delivery
  • Prolonged period between membrane rupture and delivery
  • Previous strep infection
  • Intrapartum fever

108

 

 

What is a non-blanching purpuric rash a sign of?

 

 

Suggests that the patient has septicaemia, not just meningitis on its own

109

 

 

How would you remember the difference between brudzinskis and kernig's sign?

 

  • Brudzinskis - Bend the neck
  • Kernigs' - straighten the Knee