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ESA 3 - Gastrointestinal System > Hernias > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hernias Deck (44)
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What are the chief sites of hernia?

  • Inguinal 
  • Femoral 
  • Umbilical 


What is the potential area of weakness causing an inguinal hernia? 

Inguinal canal


What is the potential area of weakness causing a femoral hernia? 

Femoral ring


What is the potential area of weakness causing an umbilical hernia? 

The umbilicus 


What is the inguinal canal? 

An oblique passageway 


In what direction does the inguinal canal extend? 

Downward and medial 


Where does the inguinal canal begin? 

At the deep (internal) inguinal ring


How long is the inguinal canal?

Approx 4cm


Where does the inguinal canal end? 

Superficial (external) inguinal ring


Where does inguinal canal lie relative to other structures? 

  1. In between the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall
  2. Runs parallel and superior to medial half of inguinal ligament 


What border does the inguinal ligament constitute?

The inferior border of the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle 


Where does the inguinal ligament attach?

The ASIS and the pubic tubercle


What passes through the inguinal canal? 

  • The ilioinguinal nerve (through part)
  • In males, the spermatic cord
  • In females, the round ligament of the uterus 


Label this diagram

  • Anterior superior iliac spine
  • External oblique aponeurosis
  • Deep membranous layer of subcutaneous tissue
  • Itercrural fibres 
  • Superficial inguinal ring
  • Ilioinguinal nerve
  • Spermatic cord


Label this diagram

  • Aponeurosis of external oblique 
  • Location of deep inguinal ring
  • Femoral vein
  • Outline of sublingual space 
  • Intercrural fibres 
  • Outline of myopectineal orifice 
  • Medial crus
  • Superficial inguinal ring (with reflected inguinal ligament in posterior wall)
  • Pubic tubercle
  • Lateral crus 
  • Lacunar ligament
  • Pectineal ligament 
  • Pectineus 
  • Femoral canal 
  • Iliopubic eminence 
  • Acetabulum 
  • Femoral sheath
  • Psoas major
  • Anterior inferior iliac spine
  • Femoral artery
  • Femoral nerve
  • Iliacus
  • Inguinal ligament
  • Lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh
  • Anterior superior iliac spine


What is an inguinal hernia? 

A protrusion of the abdominal cavity contents through the inguinal canal 


How common are inguinal hernias? 

Give lifetime risks

Very common

  • Lifetime risk 27% for men
  • Lifetime risk 3% for women 


What is a direct inguinal hernia? 

Protrusion into the inguinal canal through a weakened area in the transversalis fasica near the medial inguinal fossa, within an anatomical region known as the inguinal/Hesselbach's triangle 


What are the borders of the Hesselbach's triangle?

  • Inferiorly-  Medial half of the inguinal ligament 
  • Medially- Lower lateral border of rectus abdominis
  • Laterally- Inferior epigastric artery


What is an indirect inguinal hernia?

Protrudes through the deep inguinal ring, within the diverging arms of the transversalis fascial sling


What are most indirect inguinal hernias a result of?

The failure of the embryonic closure of the deep inguinal ring after the testicle has passed through it 


Label this diagram illustrating the common sites of hernia

  • A - Epigastric hernia 
  • B - Incisional hernia 
  • C - Umbilical hernia 
  • D - Indirect inguinal hernia 
  • E - Direct inguinal hernia 
  • F - Femoral hernia 


Where do epigastric hernias occur? 

In the epigastric region, in the midline between the xiphoid process and the umbilicus, through the linea alba 


What are the primary risk factors for epigastric hernias? 

  • Obesity
  • Pregnancy 


Where do umbilical hernias occur? 

Through the umbilical ring


What size are umbilical hernias? 

Usually small


What do umbilical hernias result from? 

Increased intra-abdominal pressure in the presence of weakness and incomplete closure of the anterior abdominal wall after ligation of the umbilical cord at birth


Who do acquired umbilical hernias occur in? 

Adults, most commonly women and obese people 


What is a femoral hernia? 

A protrusion of abdominal viscera into the femoral canal


Where does a femoral hernia occur? 

Through the femoral ring