Salivation and Swallowing Flashcards Preview

ESA 3 - Gastrointestinal System > Salivation and Swallowing > Flashcards

Flashcards in Salivation and Swallowing Deck (118)
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1

What is the entrace to the GI tract? 

The mouth

2

What does the mouth serve to do? 

  • Disrupts foodstuffs
  • Mix foodstuffs with saliva to form boluses

3

What can happen once food boluses have been formed?

They can be swallowed

4

What is the function of teeth? 

  • Cut
  • Crush
  • Mix food with saliva

5

Which type of teeth cut?

Incisors

6

Which type of teeth crush?

Molars

7

What generates the force behind the teeth?

The powerul muscles of mastication, the Masseter 

8

What innervates the Masseter?

A branch of the trigeminal nerve

9

What is the tongue?

A collection of 8 muscles

10

What does the tongue do?

  • Works to manipulate food for mastication and form it into a bolus
  • Aids swallowing by pushing bolus to back of mouth

11

Label this diagram 

  • A - Nasopharynx
  • B - Oropharynx
  • C - Hypopharynx
  • D - Esophagus
  • E - Sinus
  • F - Nasal cavity
  • G - Salivary glands
  • H - Oral cavity 
  • I - Trachea 

12

Where does the oropharynx lie?

Behind the oral cavity 

13

What does the oropharynx form?

The portion of the pharynx below the nasopharynx but above the laryngopharynx

14

Where does the oropharynx extend?

From the uvula (the end of the palate), to the level of the hyoid bone

15

What closes over the glottis?

A flap of tissue called the epiglottis

16

Why is the epiglottis needed?

To prevent aspiration, as both food and air pass through the oropharynx

17

What is the oesophagus?

A muscular tube

18

What is the function of the oesophagus?

It passes food from the pharynx to the stomach 

19

What is the oesophagus continuous with?

The lower part of the laryngopharynx

20

What are the layers of the oesophagus?

  • Mucosa
  • Submucosa
  • Muscularis externa 

21

What is the mucosa of the oesophagus composed of?

  • Non-keratinised stratified squamous epithelium
  • Lamina propria
  • Layer of smooth muscle (Muscularis Mucosa)

22

What does the submucosa of the oesophagus contain?

The mucous secreting glands

23

What kind of muscle is in the muscularis externa of the oesophagus?

  • Upper third is striated, skeletal muscle, under conscious control
  • Lower two-thirds are smooth muscle, under autonomic control

24

What is the function of the skeletal muscle in the upper third of the oesophagus?

For swallowing

25

What is the function of the smooth muscle in the lower two thirds of the oesophagus? 

Peristalsis 

26

How much saliva is produced each day?

1.5L

27

What are the function of saliva?

  • Lubricates and wets food
  • Starts digestion of carbohydrates 
  • Protects oral environment

28

How does saliva start the digestion of carbohydrates?  

Through the presence of amylase 

29

How does saliva protect the oral environment? 

  • Keeps mucosa moist 
  • Washes teeth
  • Maintains alkaline environment 
  • High Ca2+ environment 

30

What is the purpose of the alkaline environment maintained by saliva?

Neutralises acid produced by bacteria