Liver, Biliary Tree and Pancreas Flashcards Preview

ESA 3 - Gastrointestinal System > Liver, Biliary Tree and Pancreas > Flashcards

Flashcards in Liver, Biliary Tree and Pancreas Deck (305)
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1

Into where does the stomach empty chyme? 

The duodenum

2

What are the key properties of chyme? 

  • Acidic
  • Hypertonic
  • Partly digested

3

How is the acidic nature of chyme corrected? 

By HCO3- secreted from the pancreas, liver, and duodenal mucosa

4

When is HCO3- produced? 

During the production of gastric acid

5

How is the hypertonicity of chyme corrected?

Osmotic movement of water into the duodenum across its wall

6

How is digestion of chyme completed?

  • By enzymes from the pancreas and duodenal mucosa
  • With bile acids from the liver

7

What components is bile made up of? 

  • Bile acid dependant 
  • Bile acid independant 

8

What is the bile acid dependant component of bile secreted by? 

 Cells lining the canaliculi

9

What does the bile acid dependant component of bile consist of? 

  • Bile acids (salts)
  • Cholesterol
  • Bile pigments 

10

Name the two primary bile salts

  • Cholic acid
  • Chenodeoxycholic acid

11

What happens to bile salts in bile? 

They are conjugated to amino acids and travel as micelles in the bile 

12

Where do bile salts play a major role? 

In the digestion and absorption of fat 

13

What is the name of the majority bile pigment? 

Bilirubin 

14

What secretes the bile acid independent component of bile? 

Cells lining the intra-hepatic bile ducts

15

What does the bile acid independant component of bile consist of? 

Alkaline juice (HCO3-like that form pancreatic duct cells

16

Label this diagram

  • A - Liver lobules
  • B - Interlobular portal triads
  • C - Central veins 
  • D - Hepatocytes
  • E - Sinusoids 

17

What supports the livers function? 

Its microscopic structure

18

What is the basic functional unit of the liver? 

A lobule surrounding a central vein 

19

What does the central vein of a liver lobule do? 

Drains blood from the liver to the systemic veins 

20

Where does blood entering the liver lobule come from? 

The hepatic portal vein and hepatic arteries 

21

Where does blood entering the lobule from the hepatic portal vein and the hepatic arteries enter the vessels? 

At the periphery of the lobule 

22

How does blood entering the lobule via the hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery reach the central vein? 

It flows through sinusoids 

23

What lines sinusoids? 

Hepatocytes 

24

Where is bile formed? 

Canaliculi 

25

What happens to bile once it has been produced in canaliculi? 

It flows towards the periphery into bile ducts

26

Label this diagram

  • A - Deep lymphatic duct receiving lymph from perisinusoidal space 
  • B - Blood flowing in sinusoids from interlobular (hepatic) artery and (portal) vein
  • C - Perisinusoidal spaces (of Disse)
  • D - Peribiliary arterial plexus
  • E - Hepatocytes 
  • F - Central vein 
  • G - Bile flowing from hepatocytes into bile canaliculi, to interlobular biliary ducts, and then to bile ducts in the extrahepatic portal triad 
  • H - Bile canaliculi 
  • I - Interlobular portal triad 
    • ​Ii - Hepatic portal vein 
    • Iii - Hepatic artery
    • Iiii - Biliary duct

27

What are the main functions of hepatocytes? 

  • Produce bile 
  • Detoxify blood

28

What is the main function of the central vein? 

Transports clean blood to hepatic vein 

29

What does the duodenum do in response to gastric emptying? 

Secretes cholecystokinin (CCK)

30

What effect does CCK have? 

It stimulates the contraction of the gall bladder