Histology of the Female Reproductive Tract Flashcards Preview

ESA 4 - Reproductive System > Histology of the Female Reproductive Tract > Flashcards

Flashcards in Histology of the Female Reproductive Tract Deck (51):
1

Label this histograph of an ovary

  • H - Hilum
  • F - Follicle
  • CL - Corpus luteum 

 

2

What is the hilum of the ovary? 

The point at which all structures, including neurovascular and lymphatics, enter and leave the ovary 

3

What are the stages in ovarian follicular development? 

  1. Primordal 
  2. Primary
  3. Pre-antral
  4. Early antral
  5. Mature
  6. Corpus luteum

 

4

What stage of ovarian follicular development is this histograph showing?

Pre-antral

5

What stage of ovarian follicular development is this histograph showing?

Early antral

6

What stage of ovarian follicular development is this histograph showing?

Mature

7

What stage of ovarian follicular development is this histograph showing?

Corpus luteum

8

What are the features of the primordial stage of follicular development? 

Small oocyte with flat, almost squamous, follicular cells 

9

What are the features of the primary stage of follicular development? 

  • Oocyte at maximum diameter
  • One or more layers of cuboidal granulosa cells
  • Zona pellucida develops

 

10

What are the features of the pre-antral stage of follicular development? 

  • Theca follucli established
  • Begin to see spaces between granulosa cells 

 

11

What are the features of the early antral stage of follicular development? 

  • Thick zona pellucisa
  • Coalesence of smallr spaces into one large space, the antrum

 

12

What are the features of the mature stage of follicular development? 

  • Oocyte almost completely seperated from the granulosa cells, apart from one small collection called the corona radiata 
  • Antrum bigger as more follicular fluid is produced

 

13

What are the features of the corpus luteum stage of follicular development? 

  • Has septae with rich blood supply so steriod hormones can access
  • Oocyte left, so only left with granulosa cells and thecal cells

14

What does the uterine tube consist of?

  • Ithsmus
  • Ampulla
  • Infundibulum
  • Fimbriae

 

15

Describe the features of the ithsmus of the uterine tube? 

  • Thick muscular wall
  • Epithelium less specialised 

 

16

What is the ampulla of the uterine tube? 

A wide dilation that is the usual site of fertilisation 

17

What happens once the zygote has been fertilised in the ampulla of the uterine tube? 

It continues to the body of the uterus 

18

Describe the histological features of the uterine tube? 

Has prominent epithelial lining with lots of secretory cells and cilia

19

What is the purpose of the cilia of the ampulla? 

Movement of the zygote

20

What is the purpose of the fimbriae of the uterine tube? 

Move around to catch the ovum and move it to the uterine tube

21

Label this histograph of the uterus

  • E - Endometrium
  • B - Stratum basalis
  • F - Stratum functionalis
  • S - Stratum spongiosum
  • C - Stratum compactum
  • M - Myometrial layer

 

22

What happens to the endometrium of the uterus? 

It develops over the course of the menstural cycle

23

What is the stratum basalis? 

Stem cell layer which provides endometrium 

24

Does the stratum basalis response to hormones? 

No, it is very stable

25

What happens to the stratum functionalis? 

Specialises over the course of the cycle to specalise for pregnancy 

26

What happens to the myometrial layer of the uterus? 

It grows and thickens to expel fetus at delivery

27

What stage of the menstrual cycle is this histograph showing? 

Early proliferative 

28

What stage of the menstrual cycle is this histograph showing? 

Late proliferative 

29

What stage of the menstrual cycle is this histograph showing? 

Early secretory

30

What stage of the menstrual cycle is this histograph showing? 

Late secretory 

31

What are the histological features of the early proliferative stage of the menstrual cycle? 

  • Glands sparse, not well developed, and almost entirely circular
  • Straight
  • No stratum functionalis, as it has been shed 

 

32

What are the histological features of the late proliferative stage of the menstrual cycle?

  • Functionalis has now doubled
  • Glands now coiled

33

What do the glands develop under the influence of in the late proliferative stage of the menstrual cycle? 

Oestrogen

34

What is the clinical relevance of glands developing under the influence of oestrogen in the late proliferative stage of the menstrual cycle? 

Don't give post-menopausal women oestrogen

35

What are the histological features of the early secretory phase of the menstural cycle? 

  • Endometrium max thickness
  • Very pronounced, coiled glands

36

What acts on the endometrium that has been prepared by oestrogen in the early secretory phase of the menstrual cycle? 

Progesterone 

37

What is the action of progesterone on the enodmetrium in the early secretory phase of the menstrual cycle? 

Stops growing, provides glandular function

38

What are the histological features of the late secretory phase of the menstrual cycle? 

Glands adopt characteristic 'saw tooth' apperance, having reached maximal differentiation 

39

What are the parts of the cervix? 

  • Endocervical canal 
  • Ectocervix

40

What are the histological features of the endocervical canal of the cervix? 

Mucus secreting, simple columnar epithelium 

41

What are the histological features of the ectocervix?

Stratified squamous non-keratinised epithelium

42

Where is the squamocolumnar junction located? 

Can be at any point in the cervix

43

What is the squamocolumnar junction? 

The junction between the uterus and the vagina where the is an abrupt change in epithelium 

44

What is the clinical importance of the transformation zone adjacent to the squamocolumnar junction? 

It is where the majority of neoplasms arise, and so is the area sampled in smears

45

What is the vagina? 

A three layered fibromuscular canal 

46

What are the histological features of the vagina? 

  • Glycogen producing non-keratinised squamous epithelium 
  • Submucosa rich in elastin fibres and highly vascular 
  • No glands

 

47

What are the histological features of the breast? 

  • A single lactiferous duct opens from each of multiple (15-20) lobes
  • Main duct branches repeatly into terminal ducts

 

48

What does a lobar unit of the breat consist of? 

Multiple acini 

49

What % of breast malignancies are infiltrating ductal carcinomas? 

˜70% 

50

What are the histological features of inactive breast tissue? 

  • Limited development of duct-alveolar system
  • Relatively dense fibrous interlobular tissue

 

51

What are the histological features of lactating breast tissue? 

  • Highly developed with milk secretions in alveolar lumen
  • Interlobular tissue reduced to thin septa