Flashcards in Lecture Deck (76)
What is a NORMAL BP
What is pre-HTN?
What is stage I HTN?
What is stage II HTN?
Greater than 160 systolic
Greater than 100 diastolic
What classifies a blood pressure as a hypertensive emergency?
DBP greater than 120mmHg
What are the 4 types of diuretics?
What is the site of action of diuretics?
Increases urinary Na+ and H2O excretion, decreases extracellular fluid and/or plasma volume which causes a decrease in TPR
Method of action of diuretics
What is the most commonly used medication for mild to moderate hypertension?
How do you dose diuretics?
Start with low potency, monitor for tolerance
What kind of diet do you recommend to a person on diuretics?
Low in Na+, high in K+
What should you warn your patient about when they take a diuretic?
Hypovalemia - low blood plasma
What do beta blockers do?
Decrease heart rate, decrease stroke volume, decrease TPR via decreasing renin and angiotensin II
What is the site of action of beta blockers?
Heart and kidney
Who should you caution use of beta blockers in?
Patients with pulmonary disease
What is the benefit of beta blockers post MI?
What are some other uses for beta blockers?
What should you monitor in a patient with renal insufficiency if they are taking an ACEI?
Monitor creatinine closely
If your patient is receiving hemodialysis and you want to start them on an ACEI, what should you do?
Communicate with nephrologist because increased incidence of negative effects
If your patient on an ACEI experiences edema, what should you do?
Take them off medication and do not try again! Once experienced they are always at risk and it can be life threatening
What vitamin should you keep an eye on if your patient is taking an ACEI?
What is the site of action for an ACEI?
Renal (Renin-angiotensin system)
What do ACEIs do?
Inhibit conversion of Angiotensin I to angiotensin II
ACEIs _____ arteriolar resistance, _____ venous capacity, _____ cardiac output, and _______ vascular volume, and ______ renovascular resistance
Site of action of ARBs?
Smooth muscle of blood vessels
What do ARBs do?
Block angiotensin from binding to angiotensin receptors
Relaxes and dilates blood vessels
Site of action of direct renin inhibitor?
What do direct renin inhibitors do?
Inhibit renin which diminishes production of angiotensin
Dilates vessels, lowers TPR, lowers BP
Site of action of DCCB and NDCCB?
Vascular smooth muscle, SA and AV nodal conduction, myocardium