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Flashcards in MESH POOL Deck (135):
1

Pathways that take place in the mitochondria

[MITO FATO] 1) FA oxidation 2) Acetyl CoA production 3) TCA 4) Oxidative phosphorylation ***4) Ketone body synthesis

2

Both cytosol and mitochondria

[HUG] 1) Heme synthesis 2) Urea cycle 3) Gluconeogenesis

3

Cytosol

1) Glycolysis 2) Protein and steroid synthesis 3) Fatty acid synthesis 4) HMP

4

The committed step in the de novo synthesis of purine nucleotide is the formation of

5-phosphoribiosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP)

5

The phase in the cell cycle when DNA undergoes replication

S phase

6

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome is the due to the deficiency of this enzyme used in the salvage pathway

Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase

7

This enzyme is inhibited by allopurinol

Xanthine oxidase

8

In the purine salvage cycle which interconvert AMP and GMP, deficiency of this enzyme results in an immunodeficiency disorder involving B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes (SCID)

Adenosine deaminase

9

Direct synthesis of ATP from high-energy compounds is known as

Substrate level phosphorylation

10

Salivary amylase catalyzes the cleavage of ___

Alpha-1, 4 glycosidic bonds of starch

11

The initial step or reaction in the utilization of all sugar is

Phosphorylation

12

In the salvage pathway of the synthesis of the purine nucleotide, ribose 5-PO4 is obtained from

HMP shunt

13

Methotrexate inhibits this enzyme

DHFR

14

This chemotherapeutic agent inhibits thymidylate synthetase

5-FU

15

The buffering capacity of hemoglobin is due to this amino acid residue

Histidine

16

Drug that will inhibit enterohepatic circulation of bile acids and salts

Cholestyramine

17

Chief vehicle that transports dietary lipids in the blood

Chylomicron

18

he "clearing factor" refers to

Extrahepatic lipoprotein lipase

19

The prostanoid with the greatest vasodilatory effect is

Prostacyclin

20

The platelets produce a potent vasoconstrictor called

Serotonin

21

The cofactor required for the enzyme activity of the pyruvate decarboxylase component of the E. coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is

TRP (Thiazolium ring of the thiamine pyrophosphate)

22

Two function groups that are always present in a carbohydrate

Aldehyde and ketone groups

23

As a rule, the number of isomers that a sugar has depends on

The number of chiral carbons

24

The syndrome of polyneuropathy associated with

Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome

25

Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome is encountered in chronic alcoholics and is primarily due to a deficiency of

Thiamine

26

Synthesis of the fatty acids require the use of NADPH reducing equivalents main source of NADPH in the cells is this pathway

Phosphogluconic pathway/PPP

27

One of the following pathways explains the occurrence of essential pentosuria

HMP

28

Final common pathway for catabolism of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids

Kreb cycle

29

Principal source of NADH2 for oxidative phosphorylation

Kreb cycle

30

Source of substrates needed for synthesis of glucose

Kreb cycle

31

The reversible interconversion of the Citric acid, cis-aconitic acid and isocitric acid in the TCA cycle is catalyzed by

Aconitase

32

The metabolites of the citric acid cycle cycle can be used both for synthesis of substances and catabolism purposes hence it is a ___ pathway

An amphibolic pathway

33

The enzyme catalyzing the anaplerotic reaction in TCA cycle is

Pyruvate carboxylase

34

This polysaccharide, utilized in laboratory separation and purification techniques is used as a plasma substitute or extender in the treatment of shock

Dextran

35

Which of the following uses only glucose as fuel under all nutritional states

RBC

36

Anaerobic oxidation of glucose yields as end product

Lactic acid

37

In which compartment of the cell does glycolysis occur

Soluble cytoplasm

38

In glycolysis, the immediate product of the reaction catalyzed by hexokinase is

Glucose-6- phosphate

39

The most potent activator of phosphofructokinase known to date

Fructose 2,6 biphosphate

40

Which enzyme in glycolysis is inhibited by fluoride

Enolase

41

What reaction links the Embden-Meyerhoff pathway to the aerobic pathway

Decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA

42

Jumping Genes

Transposons

43

CHARGAFF’s RULE

A = T and C = G

44

Coding Region

Exons

45

STOP codons

UAG, UAA, UGA (nonsense mutation)

46

Sickle cell anemia is an example of what mutation

Missense mutation

47

Sickle cell anemia is a substitution of which amino acid

Substitution of VALINE & GLUTAMIC ACID

48

Thermostable enzyme in PCR

Taq Polymerase

49

Confirmatory test for HIV

Western Blot

50

Screening test for HIV

ELISA

51

Test for DNA

Southern Blot [think SNoW DRoP]

52

Test for Protein

Western Blot [think SNoW DRoP]

53

Relax/unwind negative supercoils

Topoisomerase

54

Relax/unwind positive supercoils

Helicase

55

Substance in egg whites responsible for binding with biotin

Avidin

56

Cheilosis, stomatitis, glossitis

Riboflavin deficiency

57

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) deficiency

58

Beri Beri

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) deficiency [think Ber1 Ber1]

59

Pellagra

Vitamin B3 (Niacin) deficiency

60

4 Ds of pellagra

Dementia, dermatitis, diarrhea, death

61

Amino acid precursor of niacin

Tryptophan

62

Polished rice eaters

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) deficiency

63

Thiaminase can be found in what food stuff

Undercooked shellfish

64

Anti-thiamine can be found in what food stuff

Tea

65

Corn eaters

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

66

Neural tube defects; Anemia

Vitamin B9 (Folate) deficiency

67

Transport form of vitamin B12

Transcobalamin

68

Transfer of ethyl groups (S-adenosylmethionine SAM)

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

69

Transfers cytosolic reducing equivalents to the mitochondrion

Malate-aspartate shuttle

70

More than half of the glycogen in the body is found in

Skeletal muscle

71

Diabetic cataract formation may be attributed to excessive formation of ___ which accumulates in the
eye

Sorbitol

72

Subacute Combined Degeneration

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) deficiency

73

Deficiency found in Strict Vegetarians

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) deficiency

74

The polyuria in diabetes mellitus is due to

Osmotic diuresis

75

Enzyme deficiency: McArdle’s syndrome

Muscle phosphorylase/MYOPHOSPHORYLASE

76

Enzyme deficiency: Von Gierke’s

Glucose-6-phosphatase

77

Glycogen Storage Disease Type II

Pompe

78

Enzyme deficiency: Cori’s disease

Debranching enzyme

79

Enzyme deficiency: Tarui’s Disease

PFK

80

A component of lung surfactant, this lipid lowers the surface tension in the alveoli and prevents respiratory distress syndrome

DPPC

81

Ketone bodies

1) Beta hydroxybutyric aicd 2) Acetoacetate 3) Acetone

82

The major enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis

COX

83

The primary level of protein structure is stabilized by

Peptide bonds

84

Secondary level of proteins

Beta pleated sheets, Beta turns, Alpha helix

85

Tertiary level of proteins

Domains (Immunoglobulin light & heavy chains)

86

Quaternary structure

Hgb

87

Theory on mechanism of enzyme action proposed by Koshland

Flexible site theory / induced fit

88

Equal to the substrate concentration at which the initial reaction velocity is half- maximal

Km (Michaelis-Menten constant)

89

In the cell, transfer of one-carbon compound as in the synthesis of serine from glycine, requires the participation of which coenzyme

Tetrahydrofolic acid

90

The central dogma in molecular biology can be summed up in this sequence of processes

Replication, transcription, translation

91

Consists of three consecutive base pairs

Codon

92

Methotrexate in cancer treatment is attributed to its capacity to inhibit this enzyme in actively dividing cells

DHFR

93

Major classes of Ig is based on

Heavy chain

94

Michaelis- Menten constant (Km) can be determined more accurately by using the

Lineweaver- Burk plot

95

States that the total energy of a system, including its surroundings remains constant

First law of thermodynamics

96

States that the total entropy of a system must increase if a process is to occur spontaneously

The second law of thermodynamics

97

Which enzyme protects our tissues from oxygen toxicity caused by the superoxide free radical

Superoxide dismutase

98

Bacterial transcription factor that initiates binding of bacterial RNA polymerase to gene promoters

Sigma factor

99

Bacterial transcription factor that terminates transcription

Rho factor

100

Bacterial ribosomes bind to WHAT on their corresponding mRNA strands

Shine Delgarno sequence

101

This molecule accepts the electrons from cytochrome aa3 found in complex IV

O2

102

Product of anaerobic metabolism in exercising muscle

Lactate

103

At neutral pH, a mixture of amino acids in solution would be predominantly

Dipolar ions/zwitterions

104

Severe phenylketonuria and shortened lifespan is a result of

Deficient or missing dihydrobiopterin

105

Ultraviolet light causes DNA damage by

Formation of pyrimidine dimers (Xeroderma Pigmentosum)

106

The mutational event responsible for the mutation in the ®-chain in sickle cell anemia

Missense mutation

107

Diphtheria toxin is often lethal in unimmunized persons because

Blocks elongation of proteins by inactivating elongation factor 2

108

Inborn error of metabolism associated with skeletal deformities and dislocation of the lens of the eyes

Homocystinuria

109

Homocystinuria is an inborn error of metabolism of what amino acid

Methionine

110

Alkaptonuria is a defect of what enzyme

Homogentisic acid oxidase

111

Maple syrup disease is a defect of what enzyme

KETOACID DEHYDROGENASE

112

Tay-sachs disease is a DEFECT of what ENZYME

HEXOSAMINIDASE A

113

Sandhoff’s Disease is a defect of what enzyme

Hexosaminidase A and B

114

The slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis

SRS-A

115

SRS-A is made up of

Leukotrienes

116

Rate limiting enzyme for cholesterol synthesis

8-HYDROXY -3- METHYLGLUTARYL, CoA REDUCTASE or HMG CoA REDUCTASE

117

Rate limiting enzyme for INTRACYTOPLASMIC FATTY ACID SYTHESIS

8-HYDROXY -3- METHYLGLUTARYL, CoA REDUCTASE or HMG CoA REDUCTASE

118

Which enzyme is responsible for joining okazaki fragments during DNA replication

DNA ligase

119

The correct mRNA is made from the opposite strand

ANTI-SENSE RNA

120

Substituting purine to pyrimidine or vice-versa

Transversion

121

Portion of the genes which carry the actual genetic information coding for protein

Exon

122

Hartnup’s disease is a defect in

Transport of neutral AA (eg. TRYPTOPHAN)

123

The eukaryotic DNA polymerase responsible for the synthesis of lagging strands is

Alpha

124

Eukaryotic DNA polymerase responsible for DNA repair

Beta and epsilon

125

Eukaryotic DNA polymerase responsible for mitochondrial DNA synthesis

Gamma

126

Eukaryotic DNA polymerase responsible for leading strand synthesis

Delta

127

Lipoprotein considered as reverse transporter

HDL

128

MOA of fibric acid derivatives (As lipid-lowering agent)

STIMULATES LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE

129

Natural antioxidant

Vitamin E

130

Mirror images

Enantiomer

131

D & L forms

Mirror images/enantiomers

132

Essential amino acid that can undergo glucose formation

Methionine

133

Amino acid that can undergo glucose formation

Alanine

134

Inhibited in disufiram reactions

Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase

135

Produced in the body in chronic kidney dx that is available in recombinant form

EPO