Midterm - Cerebrovascular System Flashcards Preview

Neuroanatomy > Midterm - Cerebrovascular System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Midterm - Cerebrovascular System Deck (27):
0

When does brain damage become irreversible

Vascular interruption for 4-6 minutes

1

Where do most strokes occur

Arteries, not veins!

2

External carotid artery

Supplies blood to facial muscles, forehead, orbital, oral and nasal cavities

3

Internal carotid artery

Major source of blood to the brain

4

Agnosia

Unable to identify or describe things

5

ACA

Anterior cerebral artery
Supplies surfaces of prefrontal, frontal, and parietal lobes
Above corpus callosum

6

Symptoms of ACA interruption

Paralysis and sensory loss in legs and feet
Prefrontal lobe symptoms of reduced thinking, reasoning, memory, and impaired planning/executive functioning

7

MCA

Middle cerebral artery
Supplies blood to entire lateral surfaces including speech language and sensorimotor areas

8

Symptoms of a MCA interruption

Contralateral hemiplegia (weakness), impaired sensory functions, aphasia, temporal visual spatial deficits, involuntary movements.
Hypertension is common cause of bleeding

9

Cerebrovascular accidents

Sudden development of focal neurological deficits

10

2 types of cerebrovascular accidents

1) occlusive vascular pathology : thrombosis and embolism

2) hemorrhagic strokes : bleeding from ruptured vessels

11

Transient ischemic attack

Temporary blood interruptions to brain, resolving in minutes to hour.

12

Thrombosis

Narrowing of an arterial lumen due to gradual accumulation of lipids, platelets, calcium deposits, and fatty particles in the blood

60% of CVAs

13

Embolism

Occlusion of smaller artery
Broken plaque away from a thrombus
Occurring during period of activity and awake hours
30% of CVAs
Symptoms - none/possible headaches/seizures

14

Hemorrhage

Ruptured weak blood vessels
Bleeding under pressure of constant blood flow
Aneurysm or AVM; 10-15% of CVAs
No earning sings, sudden onset of neurological symptoms

15

Extra/subdural hematoma

Develops from trauma or injury
Rupture of blood vessel between dura mater and skull

16

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

Bleeding of an AVM or aneurysm

17

Aneurysm

Local dilation of artery due to weakness in vessel wall

18

Arterivenous malformation (AVM)

Congenital or fetal circulatory vascular malformation involved tangled dialated arteries and veins
With age, may rupture due to think walls

19

Symptoms of AVM

Seizures
Recurrent headaches
Language impairments
Motor speech problems
Visual disorders
Sensory loss
Hemiplegia

20

Goal of treatment for vascular disease

Decreasing morbidity
Restoring normal blood circulation
Reduction in post stroke complications
Treatment dependent on: location of the brain and disease of nature (occlusive or hemorrhagic)

21

Blood brain barrier

First line of defense for the brain
Regulates arterial permeability in CNS vessels

22

Abrupt onset vs gradual symptoms

Abrupt onset - CVA
Gradual symptoms - mass lesion (tumor)

23

Choroid plexus

Produces CSF
CSF circulates in ventricles in subarachnoid space

24

What absorbs CSF

Arachnoid granulation

25

Hydrocephalus

Increased CSF pressure
Enlarged ventricles
Affects cortical functions

26

Surgical treatment for hydrocephalus

Tube/shunt creating a valve system to regulate pressure
Prevents the collapsing of the brain