Motor Neuron Disease, Bulbar and Pseudobulber Palsy Flashcards Preview

Neurology > Motor Neuron Disease, Bulbar and Pseudobulber Palsy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Motor Neuron Disease, Bulbar and Pseudobulber Palsy Deck (30):
1

 

 

What is motor neuron disease?

 

Cluster of neurodegeneraitve diseases characterised by selective loss of neurons in the motor cortex, cranial nerve nuclei and anterior horn cells

2

 

 

How would you distinguish MND from MS?

 

  • There is no sensory disturbance or sphincter loss in MND
  • MND never affects eye movements

3

 

 

What are the four clinical patterns/subtypes that can present in MND?

 

  • Amyotropic lateral sclerosis
  • Progressive Bulbar/Pseudobulbar palsy
  • Progressive muscular atrophy
  • Primary lateral sclerosis

4

 

 

What is the most common clinical pattern of MND?

 

 

Amyotopic lateral sclerosis

5

 

 

What are the features of ALS?

Simulataneous UMN and LMN involvement - present with signs of both

  • Starts in one limb, then gradually to other limbs and trunk
  • Progressive focal muscle weakness and wasting
  • Muscle fasciculations
  • Signs of UMN - spasticity, brisk reflexes, up going plantars, asymmetric spastic paraparesis
  • Signs of LMN - flaccid paralysis, wasting, fasciculations

6

 

 

What is the pattern of an upper motor neuron lesion?

Pyramidal tracts

  • Spaticity - clasp knife
  • Weakness - loss of skilled movement
  • Brisk reflexes
  • Upgoing plantars
  • Clonus

7

 

 

What is meant by a pyramidal pattern of weakness?

UMN weakness affects groups of muscles:

  • Arms - extensors predominantly affected - flexors left stronger
  • Legs - Flexors predominantly affected - extensors left stronger

 

Anti-gravity muscles are left stronger

8

 

 

What are features of a LMN lesion?

Anywhere from anterior horn cell distally:

  • Wasting
  • Fasciculations
  • Flacid paralysis
  • Absent/Reduced reflexes
  • Babinski negative
  • Clonus negative

9

 

 

What are causes of mixed UMN/LMN signs?

 

  • MND
  • B12 defciency
  • Taboparesis

10

 

 

What are features of the progressive bulbar palsy subtype of MND?

LMN lesion affecting cranial nerves IX-XII:

  • Flaccid, wasted fasciculating tongue
  • Jaw jerk normal/absent
  • Quiet speech/hoarse/nasal
  • Absent gag reflex

11

 

 

What are features of progressive pseudobulbar (corticobulbar) palsy?

UMN lesion of cranial nerves IX-XII:

  • Increased/normal gag reflex
  • Spastic tongue
  • Increased jaw jerk
  • Slow, deliberate, spastic speech
  • Labile emotions - unprovoked weeping, mood-incongruent giggling

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zh0xmb_qqzo

12

 

 

What are causes of bulbar palsy?

 

  • Motor neurone disease
  • Syringobulbia
  • Guillain-Barre syndrome
  • Poliomyelitis
  • Subacute menignitis (carcinoma, lymphoma)
  • Neurosyphilis
  • Brainstem CVA

 

13

 

 

What are causes of pseudobulbar palsy?

 

  • Commonest - bilateral CVAs affecting the internal capsule.
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Motor neurone disease
  • High brainstem tumours
  • Head injury

14

 

 

What are features of the progressive muscular atrophy subtype of MND?

LMN only:

  • Flaccid paralysis
  • Muscle wasting
  • Reduced/absent reflexes
  • Babinski negative
  • Fasciculations
  • Clonus negative

15

 

 

What part of the motor pathway does progressive muscular atrophy affect?

 

 

Anterior horn cell only - therefore LMN only

16

 

 

What are features of the primary lateral sclerosis subtype of MND?

Confined to UMN:

  • Spasticity
  • Muscle weakness
  • Increased reflexes
  • Babinski's positive
  • Clonus positive
  • No muscle wasting

Marked spastic leg weakness and pseudobulbar palsy

 

 

17

 

 

What cells are affected in primary lateral sclerosis?

 

 

Betz cells in the motor cortex are lost

18

 

 

What is the mean age of onset of MND?

 

 

60 years, but think of in anyone over age 40 presenting with signs of MND

19

 

 

What common presentations may make you think of MND?

 

  • Stumbling spastic gait
  • Foot drop myopathy
  • Weak grip
  • Weak shoulder abduction
  • Aspiration pnuemonia
  • Frontotemporal dementia with MN signs

20

 

 

How would you diagnose MND?

 

 

  • Largely clinical diagnosis with EMG
  • CK - may be mildly elevated
  • Other investigations exclude other diagnoses

21

 

 

What is the prognosis for someone with ALS?

 

 

Approximatley 4 years until death following diagnosis

22

 

 

What is the prognosis for someone with progressive bulbar palsy?

 

 

Approximately 2 years

23

 

 

What medications are used to manage MND?

 

  • Riluzole - only medication shown to improve survival (about 3 months extra)
  • Baclofen - reduces spasticity

24

 

 

What class of drug is Riluzole?

 

 

Glutamate and NMDA receptor inhibitor

25

 

 

What supportive measures can be put in place for someone with MND?

MDT involvement:

  • PT
  • OT
  • SALT
  • Feeding Gastrostomy
  • Non-invasive respiratory support

26

 

 

How would you manage problems with excess saliva in someone with MND?

 

  • Advise positioning
  • Oral care
  • Suctioning

27

 

 

How would you manage problems with spasticity in someone with MND?

 

  • Baclofen
  • Exercise
  • Orthotics

28

 

 

How would you address problems with communication in someone with MND?

 

 

Augmentative/alternative communication equipment

29

 

 

What type of dementia is ALS associated with?

 

 

Frontotemporal dementia

30

 

 

Why is it important to recognise early on that those with ALS can develop frontotemporal dementia?

 

 

Planning end-of-life decisions early on before cognitive decline