Musculo - Pathology (Part 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Musculo - Pathology (Part 1) Deck (179)
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1

Achondroplasia is an autosomal _____ (dominant/recessive) genetic trait.

Dominant

2

In achondroplasia, the short limbs are a result of the failure of what type of bone growth?

Longitudinal bone growth (this type of bone growth accounts for the growth of the long bones in the limbs)

3

In achondroplasia, _____ (endochondral/membranous) bone growth is not affected.

Membranous (this type of bone growth accounts for the formation of the skull, the facial bones, and the axial skeleton)

4

In achondroplasia, the limbs are shorter than normal, but the _____ and _____ are normal.

Head; trunk

5

Achondroplasia represents a failure of cartilage maturation resulting from a mutation in what receptor?

Fibroblast growth factor receptor

6

Individuals with achondroplasia have _____ (normal/decreased) life span and fertility.

Normal

7

True or False? Achondroplasia is associated with advanced paternal age.

True

8

A reduction in bone mass despite normal bone mineralization is a description of what disease?

Osteoporosis

9

What is type I osteoporosis?

Increased bone resorption as a result of decreased estrogen levels

10

Which therapy for osteoporosis is considered controversial due to risk of serious side effects?

Estrogen replacement therapy

11

What is type II osteoporosis?

Senile osteoporosis; affects men and women older than 70 years of age

12

Which upper extremity fracture is commonly seen in patients with osteoporosis?

Colles fracture of the distal radius

13

A known osteoporotic patient presents with acute back pain, loss of height and kyphosis. From what is she suffering?

Vertebral crush fractures

14

Name four treatments for osteoporosis.

Estrogen, calcitonin, bisphosphonates, and pulsatile parathyroid hormone

15

Name two methods of osteoporosis prophylaxis.

Exercise and calcium supplementation before age 30 years

16

A failure of normal bone resorption that leads to thickened, dense bones is a description of which disorder?

Osteopetrosis

17

Osteopetrosis is a bone defect caused by the abnormal function of which cell type?

Osteoclasts

18

In patients with osteopetrosis, is the serum calcium level high, normal, or low?

Normal

19

In patients with osteopetrosis, is the serum phosphate level high, normal, or low?

Normal

20

In patients with osteopetrosis, is the alkaline phosphatase level high, normal, or low?

Normal

21

A genetic deficiency in carbonic anhydrase II leads to what disease?

Osteopetrosis

22

Name three complications of osteopetrosis due to decreased space for bone marrow.

Anemia, thrombocytopenia, and infection

23

What neurologic lesions may result from osteopetrosis?

Cranial nerve palsies due to narrowed foramina in the skull

24

What is the classic x-ray finding in osteopetrosis?

Erlenmeyer flask bones that flare out

25

What is the disorder in which the defective mineralization of osteoid leads to soft bones?

Osteomalacia/rickets

26

Vitamin D deficiency in adults leads to decreased levels of what important element of bone formation?

Calcium

27

A decreased level of calcium leads to increased levels of what hormone?

Parathyroid hormone

28

In osteomalacia/rickets, phosphate levels are _____ (increased/decreased).

Decreased (due to secondary hyperparathyroidism induced by low calcium levels)

29

Vitamin D deficiency in childhood causes what disorder?

Rickets

30

What condition causes osteitis fibrosa cystica?

Hyperparathyroidism