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Flashcards in Musculo - Pharmacology Deck (69)
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1

What does the lipoxygenase pathway of the arachidonic acid pathway yield?

Leukotrienes (remember: L for Lipoxygenase and Leukotrienes)

2

Which arachidonic acid product is a neutrophil chemotactic agent?

Leukotriene B4 (remember: Neutrophils arrive B4 others)

3

What effect do leukotrienes C4, D4, and E4 have on the bronchi and the bronchioles?

Bronchoconstriction

4

What effect do leukotrienes C4, D4, and E4 have on the vasculature?

Vasoconstriction and increase vascular permeability

5

What effect does prostacyclin (PGI2) have on platelets?

Inhibits platelet aggregation (remember Platelet-Gathering Inhibitor)

6

What effect does prostacyclin (PGI2) have on the vasculature?

Promotes vasodilation

7

What is the first step of the arachidonic acid pathway?

Membrane lipids are converted to arachidonic acid by phospholipase A2

8

Within the arachidonic acid cascade, what two enzymes use arachidonic acid as their substrate?

Lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase

9

What drug inhibits the enzyme lipoxygenase?

Zileuton

10

What are the two mechanisms of action of steroids on the arachidonic acid pathway?

Steroids inhibit the action of phospholipase and inhibit the synthesis of cyclooxygenases

11

Cyclooxygenase directly converts arachidonic acid into what category of compounds resulting in what two products?

Endoperoxides; prostaglandins G and H

12

Hydroperoxides are the precursors of what class of arachidonic acid products?

Leukotrienes

13

Endoperoxides are the precursors of what three arachidonic acid products?

Prostacyclin, prostaglandins, and thromboxane

14

List two drugs that inhibit leukotrienes from producing an increase in bronchial tone.

Zafirlukast and montelukast

15

Name three effects of prostacyclin.

Prostacyclin decreases platelet aggregation, causes vasodilation and decreases uterine tone

16

Name four effects of prostaglandins on the body.

Prostaglandins cause a decrease in vascular tone, increase in pain, increase in uterine tone, increase in temperature

17

Zileuton inhibits the conversion of _____ to _____.

arachidonic acid to hydroperoxides

18

Aspirin _____ (reversibly/irreversibly) inhibits cyclooxygenase.

Irreversibly

19

Aspirin causes a decrease in synthesis of what two products?

Thromboxane and prostaglandins

20

At what dose does aspirin cause decreased platelet aggregation?

Low-dose; < 300 mg/day

21

At what dose does aspirin have antipyretic and analgesic properties?

Intermediate dose; 300-2400 mg/day

22

At what dose does aspirin have antiinflammatory properties?

High dose; 2400-4000 mg/day

23

What is a common toxicity of aspirin use?

Gastric upset

24

Chronic use of aspirin can cause what three problems?

Acute renal failure, interstitial nephritis, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding

25

What syndrome can develop in children with viral illnesses who are given aspirin?

Reyes syndrome

26

Name four examples of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs.

Ibuprofen, naproxen, indomethacin, and ketorolac

27

Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs work by reversibly inhibiting what substance?

Cyclooxygenase

28

Do ibuprofen, naproxen, indomethacin, and ketorolac inhibit cyclooxygenase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, or both?

Both

29

Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs block the synthesis of what substance?

Prostaglandins

30

What are the three effects of administration of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs?

They are antipyretics, analgesics, and antiinflammatory agents