Musculo - Pathology (Part 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Musculo - Pathology (Part 2) Deck (134)
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1

Hypercalcemia associated with sarcoidosis occurs because of the increased conversion of what substance into its active form in epithelioid macrophages?

Vitamin D

2

What type of arthritis is associated with sarcoidosis?

Rheumatoid arthritis (remember: GRAIN (Gammaglobulinemia, Rheumatoid arthritis, ACE increase, Interstitial fibrosis, Noncaseating granulomas)

3

What is the treatment for sarcoidosis?

Steroids

4

Polymyositis involves progressive _____ (proximal/distal) muscle weakness.

Proximal

5

Which part of the immune system causes damage in polymyositis?

CD8+ T-cell-induced injury to myofibers

6

Polymyositis most often involves what body part?

Shoulders

7

Dermatomyositis is similar to polymyositis but also involves what skin symptom?

Rash (heliotrope, malar and shawl and face)

8

Which lab results are abnormal in polymyositis/dermatomyositis?

Elevated creatine kinase, elevated aldolase, positive antinuclear antibody, and anti-Jo-1

9

What is the diagnostic procedure for dermatomyositis and polymyositis?

Muscle biopsy

10

What is the treatment for polymyositis and dermatomyositis?

Steroids are used to treat both disorders

11

Gottrons papules are symptoms of what disease?

Dermatomyositis

12

While the symptoms of myasthenia gravis _____ (improve/worsen) with muscle use, symptoms of Lambert-Eaton syndrome _____ (improve/worsen) with muscle use.

Worsen; improve

13

Myasthenia gravis is caused by autoantibodies to which receptor?

Acetylcholine receptors

14

Name two ophthalmic manifestations of myasthenia gravis.

Ptosis and diplopia

15

Myasthenia gravis is associated with which type of tumor?

Thymoma

16

Individuals with myasthenia gravis complain of generalized weakness that is worse in the _____ (morning/evening).

In myasthenia gravis, weakness tends to be worse toward the end of the day

17

Lambert-Eaton syndrome is caused by autoantibodies to which types of ionic channels, leading to a decrease in acetylcholine release?

Calcium channels

18

Lambert-Eaton syndrome leads to _____ (proximal/distal) muscle weakness.

Proximal

19

Which malignancy is most closely associated with Lambert-Eaton syndrome?

Small-cell lung cancer

20

True or False? Both myasthenia gravis and Lambert-Eaton syndrome improve with acetylcholinesterase inhibitor use.

False; although myasthenia gravis symptoms reverse with the use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, there is no reversal in Lambert-Eaton syndrome with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors alone such as edrophonium

21

While myasthenia gravis involves autoantibodies against the _____ (presynaptic/postsynaptic) acetylcholine receptors, Lambert-Eaton syndrome involves autoantibodies against the _____ (presynaptic/postsynaptic) calcium channels.

Postsynaptic; presynaptic

22

In contrast to myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton syndrome spares what muscle group?

Extraocular muscles

23

What five characteristics are associated with mixed connective tissues diseases?

Raynauds phenomenon, Fatigue, Arthralgias, Myalgias, and Esophageal hypomotility (remember: Raynauds FAME)

24

Patients with mixed connective tissue disease are positive for _____ autoantibodies.

U1 ribonucleoprotein

25

What is the treatment for mixed connective tissue disease?

Steroids

26

What condition involves excessive fibrosis and collagen deposition throughout the body but most commonly under the skin?

Scleroderma

27

Does scleroderma affect more men or women?

Women

28

Although scleroderma most commonly affects the skin, what four other organ systems can it affect?

Cardiovascular, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and renal

29

Describe the progression of diffuse scleroderma.

Widespread skin involvement, rapid progression, and early visceral involvement

30

What are the two types of scleroderma?

Diffuse scleroderma and CREST syndrome