Myasthenia Gravis and Lambert Eaton myasthenic syndrome Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Myasthenia Gravis and Lambert Eaton myasthenic syndrome Deck (37):
1

 

 

What is myasthenia gravis?

 

This is an acquired condition characterised by autoimmune destruction of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the post-synaptic side of the NMJ. B and T cell mediated IgG autoantibodies are created which attack the postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction. This causes the physical symptoms of weakness and fatigability.

2

 

 

What is the pathophysiology of myasthenia gravis?

 

Antibodies to acetylcholine receptor protein (anti-AChR antibodies) are commonly found. Immune complexes of anti-AChR IgG and complement are deposited at the postsynaptic membranes, causing interference with and later destruction of AChRs.

A second group of antibodies against muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (anti-MuSK antibodies) have been identified in anti-AChR antibody negative cases. Ocular muscle MG is another subgroup.

3

 

 

What proportion of those with myasthenia gravis have thymic hyperplasia?

 

 

70% - below the age of 40

4

 

 

What proportion of those with myasthenia gravis have a thymic tumour?

 

 

10% - incidence increases with age

5

 

 

What disease processes are associated with the development of myasthenia gravis?

 

  • Thyroid disease
  • Rheumatoid disease
  • Pernicious anaemia
  • SLE
  • Thymic hyperplasia/thymoma

6

 

 

What age is myasthenia gravis more common in women?

 

 

<50 years

7

 

 

What age range is myasthenia gravis more commonly associated with being male?

 

 

>50 years

8

 

 

What are symptoms of myasthenia gravis?

Slowly increasing/relapsing muscular fatigue. Muscle groups affected include:

  • Extraocular
  • Bulbar
  • Face
  • Neck
  • Limb girdle
  • Trunk

9

 

 

What signs might you see in someone with myasthenia gravis?

Fatiguability demonstrated

  • Ocular - Ptosis, Diplopia
  • Bulbar - dysphagia, dysphonia, dysarthria, dropping face
  • Peek sign
  • Voice fading - counting to 50

10

 

 

What might patients with myasthenia gravis report with regards to their experience of their symptoms?

 

 

Best time is in the morning, and get worse as the day goes on

11

 

 

What can exacerbate symptoms experienced in myasthenia gravis?

 

  • Pregnancy
  • Hypokalaemia
  • Infection
  • Over-treatment
  • Change of climate
  • Emotion
  • Drugs
     

12

 

 

What drugs can exacerbate myasthnic symptoms?

 

  • Gentamicin
  • Opiates
  • Tetracycline
  • Quinine
  • B-blockers

13

 

 

If someone presented with features of myasthenia gravis, what would be your differential diagnosis?

 

  • Polymyositis/other myopathies
  • SLE
  • Takayasu's Arteritis
  • Botulism

14

 

 

What is the general couse of myasthnia gravis?

 

 

Has a fluctuating/relapsing/remitting course, but over time this progresses to severe disease, where respiratory difficulties become prominent

15

 

 

What effect does myasthenia gravis have on reflexes?

 

 

Normally preserved, but can demonstrate fatiguability

16

 

 

What investigations might you do in someone with suspected myasthenia gravis?

 

  • Serum antibody - Anti-AChR antibodies, MUSK antibodies
  • EMG
  • Imaging - CT
  • Ice applicaiton test
  • Tensilon test

17

 

 

What percentage of cases are anti-AChR antiobodies found in myaesthenia gravis?

 

 

80-90%

18

 

 

What are the characteristic features of those with myaesthenia gravis with Anti-MUSK antibodies?

 

 

Weakness predominantly in bulbar, facial and neck muscles

19

 

 

What might EMG show in someone with myaesthenia gravis?

 

 

A characteristic decrement with repetetive stimulation

20

 

 

Why would you do a CT in someone with suspected myaethenia gravis?

 

 

To exclude Thymoma

21

 

 

What is the tensilon test?

Not commonly used test

 

IV edrophonium - weakness improves within seconds, and can last up to 5 minutes

22

 

 

How would you manage someone with myaethenia gravis?

 

  • Anticholinesterase - pyridostigmine
  • Immunosuppression - Treat relapse with prednisolone for extended period (depending on response)
  • Thymectomy - beneficial even in those without thymoma
  • Consider plasmapheresis/IVIG - exacerbation

23

 

 

What are side effects to anticholinesterase medication?

 

  • Increased salivation, lacrimtion
  • Sweats
  • Comiting
  • Miosis
  • Diarrhoea
  • Colic

24

 

 

What would you give in combination with steroid therapy for relapses of myaesthenia gravis?

 

 

Osteoporotic prophylactic treatment

25

 

 

What is a myaesthenic crisis?

 

 

Life-threatening weakness of the resp. muscles during a relapse

26

 

 

What else could be a cause of features of a myaesthenic crisis?

 

 

Cholinergic crisis - overtreatment with anticholinesterase drugs

27

 

 

How would you manage someone with a myaesthnic crisis?

 

  • Monitor forced vital capacity
  • Ventilatory support
  • Identify cause (infection/meds)
  • Treat with plasmapheresis/IVIG

 

28

 

 

What is Lambert-Eaton myasthenic-syndrome?

 

 

Often a paraneoplastic manifestation of SCLC due to defective acetylcholine release at the NMJ. Can be caused by other disease processes including thyroid disease and T1DM

29

 

 

What are antibodies in Lambert-Eaton-myasthenic syndrome against?

 

 

Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels on the pre-synaptic membrane

30

 

 

What are features Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome?

 

  • Gait difficulty preceding eye/Bulbar signs
  • Autonomic involvement
  • Hyporeflexia
  • Proximal limb weakness

31

 

 

What autonomic features can present in Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome?

 

  • Dry mouth
  • Constipation
  • Impotence

32

 

 

What are features of proximal muscle weakness seen in Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic syndrome, and why does this differ from myasthenia gravis?

 

 

Tends to improve after a few minutes of muscle contraction

33

 

 

How would you investigate someone for suspected Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome?

 

  • EMG + repetetive stimulation
  • Serum antibodies - P/Q-type VGCC antibodies

34

 

 

What proportion of those with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome are anti-P/Q type VGCC antibody positive?

 

 

85-95%

35

 

 

How would you manage someone with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome?

 

  • Pyridostigmine
  • 3,4-Diaminopyridine
  • IVIG

36

 

 

What would you consider doing in someone with diagnosed Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome who had not been found to have SCLC?

 

 

Do regular high res CXR/CT - syndrome can precede cancer by > 4yrs

37

 

 

How do anticholinesterase medications work?

 

 

Reduce the rate of degradation of ACh, thus increasing its chance of triggering an end-plate potential