Nelson - Ch. 379 The Common Cold Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nelson - Ch. 379 The Common Cold Deck (36)
1

MC pathogens associated with common cold

Rhinoviruses

2

Less common causes of common cold

1) RSV 2) Human metapneumovirus 3) Parainfluenza 4) Adenovirus

3

Young children have an average of ___ colds per year

6-8

4

T/F The incidence of common colds decreases with age

True

5

Viruses that cause common colds are spread by these 3 mechanisms

1) Direct hand contact 2) Inhalation of small particle aerosols 3) Deposition of large particle aerosols that land on conjunctiva after sneezing

6

Efficient mech of transmission for rsv and rhinovirus

Direct contact

7

Efficient spread of transmission of influenza and coronavirus

Small particle aerosols

8

Why is the immunity from common cold viruses short-lived

1) Mucosal Ig induced by previous infection is short-lived 2) Brief incubation period allows establishment of infection before immune memory responses

9

T/F In common colds, severity of illness is moderated by preexisting immunity

T

10

Viral shedding of most respiratory viruses peaks ___ days after inoculation often coinciding wih symptom onset

3-5 days

11

Aspect of common colds that predisposes to bacterial sinusitis or otitis media

Obstruction of sinus ostia or eustachian tube from inflammation

12

Responsible for most common cold symptoms rather than direct damage to the respiratory tract

Host immune system

13

Symptoms of the common cold vary by age and virus. In infants, ___ and ___ predominate. ___ is uncommon in children and adults.

Fever and nasal discharge; fever

14

The usual cold persists for approx ___, although 10% lasts for 2 weeks

1 week

15

T/F Nasal eosinophils is characteristic of allergic rhinitis

T

16

T/F Nasal neutrophils is characteristic of bacterial superinfection

F

17

Reduces frequency of influenza-associated otitis media

Oseltamivir

18

Viruses most efficiently transmitted via direct contact

1) Rhinoviruses 2) RSV

19

Viruses most efficiently transmitted via small-particle aerosols

1) Influenza viruses 2) Coronaviruses

20

The effect of the antihistamines on rhinorrhea appears to be related to the ___ properties of these drugs

Anticholinergic

21

First symptom of common cold

Sore or scratchy throat

22

Fever, headache or facial pain, or periorbital edema or persistence of rhinorrhea or cough >14 days

Sinusitis

23

Persistent rhinorrhea with onset in the 1st 3 months of life

Congenital syphilis

24

The most important task of the physician caring for a patient with a cold is to

Exclude other conditions that are potentially more serious or treatable

25

A nasal smear for eosinophils may be useful if ___ is suspected

Allergic rhinitis

26

T/F A predominance of PMNs in the nasal secretions is characteristic of bacterial superinfection

F, uncomplicated colds

27

T/F Ribavirin, which is approved for treatment of severe RSV infections, has no role in the treatment of the common cold

T

28

___ reduces the duration but not the severity of symptoms of a common cold if begun within 24 hr of symptoms.

Zinc

29

Rebound effect from discontinuation of topical adrenergic agents used for a prolonged period for rhinitis

Rhinitis medicamentosa

30

Major adverse effects associated with the use of antihistamines

1) Sedation 2) Paradoxical hyperactivity

31

Topical anticholinergic agent that produces an effect comparable to antihistamines but is not associated with sedation

Ipratropium bromide

32

___ has a modest effect on relieving nocturnal cough and unlikely to be harmful in children older than 1 yr of age

Honey

33

Honey should be avoided in children younger than 1 yr of age because

Risk of botulism

34

T/F Vitamin C, guaifenesin, and inhalation of warm, humidified air are no more effective than placebo for the treatment of cold symptoms

T

35

T/F There is no evidence that the common cold or persistent acute purulent rhinitis of less than 10 days in duration benefits from antibiotics.

T

36

MC complication of a cold

Acute otitis media