Neoplasms 2 (new) Flashcards Preview

ESA 2 - Pathological Processes > Neoplasms 2 (new) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neoplasms 2 (new) Deck (10)
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1

what is the difference between cancer grade and cancer stage

Grade = level of differentiation

Stage = malignant neoplasm's overall burden - size and level of invasion

2

which 4 features does cancer grade assess

1. nuclear:cytoplasm ratio
2. hyperchromasia (nuclear staining)
3. pleiomorphism (variation in size and shape of cells/nuclei)
4. presence of mitotic figures

G1 = well differentiated, G4 = undifferentiated/anaplastic

3

describe the system used to grade breast cancer

Modified Bloom-Richardson grading:
- tubule formation
- nuclear features
- mitotic activity

Determines G1-G3.

4

which staging system is used to describe most cancers

TNM Staging:
- T = size of primary tumour (T1-4)
- N = extent of regional node metastasis (N0-N3)
- M = extent of distant metastatic spread (M0-M1)

5

describe the 4 possible cancer stages according to TNM system

Stage I
- T1/2, N0, M0
- small and remains at primary site

Stage 2
- T3/4, N0, M0
- more locally advanced, no spread

Stage 3
- any T, N>1, M0
- regional metastasis

Stage 4
- any T, any N, M1
- advanced disease with distant metastasis

6

what are paraneoplastic syndromes

Systemic effects of a neoplasm due to increasing tumour burden, secreted cytokines, hormones, etc.

E.g. reduced appetite, cachexia, immunosuppression...

7

what is Trousseau's syndrome

thrombosis due to hypercoagulability (e.g. mucin production)

8

name the 4 most common cancers in UK

1. breast
2. prostate
3. lung
4. bowel

9

which cancers are most common in children

leukaemias, CNS tumours, lymphomas

10

name the 4 most deadly cancers

1. lung
2. bowel
3. breast
4. prostate