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Flashcards in Neuroanatomy 1 Deck (125):
1

Where is the gray matter and white matter in the cerebrum?

Outside and inside

2

Where is the gray matter and white matter in the brainstem?

Mixed

3

Where is the gray matter and white matter in the spinal cord?

Inside and outside

4

What are the excitatory neurons? What kind of connections do they make?

glutamatergic. long-range connections

5

what are the inhibitory neurons? what kind of connections do they make?

GABAergic. short-range, local connections

6

where are the cell bodies of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin in the brain?

mostly brainstem and the axons project into cortox

7

where levels of the sympathetic system?

t1-l3

8

what are the levels of the parasympathetic system?

CN III, VII, IX, X, S2-S4

9

what is the function of the lateral corticospinal tract?

Motor output in spine

10

what is the function of the dorsal column medial lemniscus pathway of the spinal cord?

sensory (vibration, joint position, light touch)

11

what is the function of the anterolateral pathways?

sensory (pain, temp, crude touch)

12

what is the cortical origin for most descending motor pathways?

primary motor cortex

13

what is the cortical termination for most somatosensory info>

primary somatosensory cortex

14

what is the purpose of the midbrain?

relay station for auditory and visual info

15

what cranial nerves are in the midbrain?

3 and 4

16

what is the purpose of pons?

sleep, respiration, swallowing, bladder control, hearing, equilibrium, taste, eye movement, facial expressions, facial sensation, and posture

17

what are the cranial nerves in pons?

5, 6, 7, 8

18

what is the purpose of medulla?

cardiac, respiratory, vomiting and vasomotor centers and deals with autonomic functions

19

what are the cranial nerves in the medulla

9, 10, 11, 12

20

what is the purpose of the cerebellum?

coordination. some role in learning, memory, attention, language and some emotional functions like fear and pleasure

21

what is the purpose of the basal ganglia?

regulate quantity of movement

22

what are the areas of the frontal cortex

prefrontal association cortex
- primary motor cortex for CONTRALATERAL side of body
- Broca’s speech area
- premotor/ supplementary motor areas
- frontal eye fields (scanning visual field)
- orbital cortex, olfactory tract
- cingulate gyrus
- micturition inhibitory area

23

what are the areas in the parietal lobe

primary somatosensory sensory cortex
- secondary and tertiary somatosensory cortices

24

what is the function of the parietal lobe?

- sensory information processing
- connection between receptive and expressive speech areas
- involved in tracking objects

25

what is the function of the dorsal area of the occipital lobe?

processing where you are and the other things around you in place

26

what is the function of the ventral area of the occipital lobe?

item identification and recognition

27

what are the functions of the temporal lobe?

limbic functions, understanding speech and written language, memory and facial/colour recognition (olfactory cortex)

28

what is the function of the insula?

primary auditory cortex, taste, other visceral senses, social, emotional, limbic

29

what areas do the middle cerebral artery supply?

most of lateral surface of cortex, deep structures (basal ganglia),

30

what areas do the anterior cerebral artery supply?

most of medial surface of cortex

31

what areas do the posterior cerebral artery supply?

posterior structures of medial and lateral surfaces

32

what does the central sulcus separate?

frontal and parietal lobes (motor and sensory info)

33

what does the lateral sulcus separate?

frontal and parietal from temporal

34

what is the function of the cingulate gyrus?

limbic system and error detector and pain

35

what consists of the paracentral lobule?

supplementary motor area, primary motor cortex, primary somatosensory cortex, all for the legs and feet

36

what part of the homunculus does the ACA supply?

legs and feet

37

what part of the homunculus does the MCA supply?

arms, face, oral cavity

38

explain the flow of motor movement from primary, unimodal to heteromodal.

primary motor cortex, motor association (premotor and supplementory motor), frontal heteromodal association cortex (prefrontal cortex)

39

explain the flow of sensory movement from primary, unimodal to heteromodal.

primary somatosensory cortex, somatosensory association cortex, lateral parietal and temporal heteromodal association

40

what is the function of the premotor cortex?

integration of visual and somatosensory cues

41

what is the function of the supplementary motor cortex?

programming complex sequencing of movement and motor planning

42

What can happen in the loss of the temporoparietal on the dominant side?

Broca's and Wernicke's

43

What can happen in the loss of the temporoparietal on the non-dominant side?

neglect

44

why does a lesion in the multimodal parieto-occipital-temporal area cause neglect?

interrupts the dorsal stream of "what?" and non-dominant hemisphere is responsible for location and movement of objects in space

45

how does one get a left side neglect?

lesion in the right hemisphere

46

Where are the limbic structures mostly located?

medial and ventral part of the brain (ie frontal, inuslar)

47

What are the four limbic structures and function?

HOME - Homeostasis (hypothalamus), Olfaction (olfactory cortex), Memory (hippocampus), Emotion (amygdala)
(Also anterior cingulate gyrus)

48

What are common behaviours related to the limbic system?

anger/sadness, reward-related behaviour, blushing, sweating, learning and memory

49

Where is the anterior cingulate located?

superior and medial aspect of limbic system

50

what is the function of the anterior cingulate

error detection (ie pain, errors) and linking reward behaviour

51

what can be a result of a dysfunctional anterior cingulate?

OCD

52

what are the two aspects of pain?

sensory-discriminative aspect and motivational-affective aspect

53

what area of the brain is responsible for the motivational-affective aspect

Limbic cortical areas: anterior cingulate gyrus, anterior insula, orbitofrontal cortex

54

what is the function of the hippcampus

learning and memory, and declarative memory

55

what happens if there is bilateral damage in the hippocampi

lose the ability to form new memories about facts

56

what are the functions of the amygdala

anything about emotions including appropriate behaviours, drive, determining significance, recognizing emotion. It is also involved in nondeclarative memory

57

what happens if there is a lesion on the amygdala

unable to recognize emotions in another person's face like fear, anger, and surprise

58

what is the function of the hypothalamus

autonomic functions (regulation of all preganglionic nerves) and physiological responses to emotional changes

59

what are some common disorders of the limbic system

seizures, neurodegenerative disorders, addictions, neurovasular, psychiatric

60

what are the functions of the thalamus

1. relay sensory info to the cortex
2. modulate motor-specific cerebral functions
3. controlling level of cortical activity
4. modulates emotional/motivational responses
5. complex visual and language functions

61

what are the three main groups of the thalamic nuclei

anterior, medial, lateral

62

which of the groups of the thalamic nuclei is responsible for relaying somatic motor and sensory information

lateral nuclei

63

what part of the lateral nuclei is responsible for motor

ventral anterior and ventral lateral

64

what part of the lateral nueli is responsible for sensory

ventral posterior (VPM for head, VPL for body)

65

where does the motor information from the basal ganglia and cerebellum project?

to the thalamus and then to the cortex, then to the brainstem or spinal cord

66

when does the dorsal column medial lemniscus pathway dessucate

at caudal medulla

67

when does the anterolateral pathway dessucate

at cervical spinal cord

68

what are the symptoms of impaired somatic motor control

weakness, paralysis, wasting, jerking, incoordination

69

where are the two projection of upper motor neurons

brain stem and the anterior horn of the spinal cords

70

where does the upper motor neuron project from

cerebral cortex

71

what are the two main divisions of the motor neurons based on the location on the spinal cord

medial and lateral corticospinal tract

72

what does the lateral corticospinal tract control

usually the contralateral extremities

73

where does the lateral corticospinal tract dessucate

pyramid of the medulla/ at the cervicomedullary junction

74

where is the lateral motor system located

lateral funiculus

75

what consists of the lateral motor system

lateral corticospinal tract

76

where is the medial motor system located

anteromedial funiculus

77

what consists of the medial motor system

reticulospinal, vestibulospinal, tectospinal, anterior corticospinal (this is not that important

78

describe the innervation of the lateral vs medial UMN on the LMN

lateral CST is unilateral and innervates contralaterally. anterior CST innervates LMN bilaterally

79

what does the anterior CST control

bilateral axial and girdle muscles

80

what are the functions of the supplementary motor area (3)

- complex sequence of movements
- transforming potential motor actions into real movements (motor planning, imagining movement)
- self-initiating movement

81

what can be a symptom of impaired supplementary motor area

apraxia (difficulty with motor planning, ie pretend to comb you hair)

82

what are the functions of the premotor cortex (2)

- integration of visual and somatosensory cues (ie visual cues to grab an object)
- potential motor actions driven by sensory input

83

which musculature has the strongest commissural linkages

vertebral and abdominal muscles

84

what musculature has the weakest commissural linkages

limb muscles (routinely used independently)

85

where does the corticobulbar UMN come from

lateral part of the homunculus of the primary motor cortex

86

what does the corticobulbar UMN control

head, face, neck

87

where does the corticospinal UMN come from

medial and "medial-lateral" part of the homunculus of the primary motor cortex

88

what does the corticospinal UMN control

arms, legs, trunk

89

what anatomically/clinically important structure does both the sensory and motor pathways run through

internal capsule

90

what can cause damage at the internal capsule

lacunar infarct

91

what kind of nerve run through the internal capsule

upper motor neurons of the motor pathway and sensory nerves

92

Weakness: UMN (yes/no), LMN (yes/no)

yes, yes

93

Atrophy: UMN (yes/no), LMN (yes/no)

no, yes

94

Fasciculations: UMN (yes/no), LMN (yes/no)

no, yes

95

Reflexes: UMN (increased/decreased, LMN (increased/decreased)

increased, decreased

96

Tone: UMN (increased/decreased, LMN (increased/decreased)

increased, decreased

97

what are the symptoms of UMN lesions

muscle weakness, hyperreflexia, increased tone, Babinski's sign

98

what are the symptoms of LMN lesions

muscle weakness, hyporeflexia, decreased tone, atrophy

99

what are the three main functions of the somatosensory system

conscious perception (cortical), modulation of movement (cerebellar), arousal and alertness (thalamus and brainstem)

100

how many neurons are usually in a somatosensory pathway

three

101

where does the first somatosensory neuron go

from periphery to spinal cord

102

where does the second somatosensory neuron go (can go two ways)

spinal cord to thalamus (and cerebellum)
spinal cord to motor neuron of effector organ (reflex)

103

where does the third somatosensory neuron go

thalamus to cerebral cortex

104

what is the fasciculus gracilis

medial part of the DCML

105

what information does the fasciculus gracilis get

tactile and proprioceptive information from the legs and trunk

106

at what spinal levels does the fasciculus gracilis enter

T6-T12

107

what is the fasciculus cuneatus

lateral part of the dorsal column

108

what information does the fasciculus cuneatus get

tactile and proprioceptive information from the upper trunk, arms and neck

109

at what spinal levels do the fasciculus cuneatus enter

C1-T6

110

What are the five main divisions of the human CNS

Telencephalon - Forebrain
Diencephalon – Forebrain; “Diencephalic structures”
Mesencephalon - Midbrain
Myelencephalon – Brainstem + Cerebellum
Spinal Cord – Spinal Cord

111

What are the five main divisions of the human CNS

Telencephalon - Forebrain
Diencephalon – Forebrain; “Diencephalic structures”
Mesencephalon - Midbrain
Myelencephalon – Brainstem + Cerebellum
Spinal Cord – Spinal Cord

112

what are the nine key structures for clinical localization

Cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord, spinal nerve, motor neuron, NMJ, muscle

113

Where does the lateral corticospinal tract synapse

at the spinal cord where it needs to leave

114

where does the DCML synapse

just before the dessucation in the medulla

115

where does the anterolateral tract synapse

at the dorsal horn of the spinal cord where it enters

116

what are the functions of the dominant hemisphere

complex motor tasks, verbal functions, arithmetical processing, following written instructions, musical ability

117

what are the functions of the non-dominant hemisphere

visual-spatial analysis, non-verbal language functions, sense of direction, musical ability (untrained), complex musical pieces, comprehensive procession

118

what connects the broca's and wernickes area

arcuate fasciculus

119

what is the anterior aspect of the limbic system associated with

olfactory system

120

what is the central aspect of the limbic system associated with

amygdala and hippcampus

121

what structure allows for the dessucation of the DCML

internal arcuate fibers

122

what structure allows for the dessucation of the anterolateral pathway

anterior commissure

123

what does astereognosis mean

cannot identify an object by palpation

124

what parts of the cortex allow for stereognosis

unimodal and multimodal somatosensory association

125

what information is received by the posterior horn, lateral horn, and anterior horn of the spinal cord

sensory, visceral, and motor