Neuroanatomy 3 Flashcards Preview

Neuroanatomy > Neuroanatomy 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neuroanatomy 3 Deck (65):
1

what are the three layers of the meninges

dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater

2

what are the two layers of the dura mater and what do they do

periosteum - anchors dura mater to skull meningeal dura - mechanical support and strength to brain

3

which layer of the dura mater is in the vertebral column

meningeal dura

4

where are the venous sinuses found

between the layers of dura mater and separate left and right hemispheres, as well as occipital lobe from the cerebellum

5

what are the venous sinuses filled with

venous blood

6

where are the potential spaces and what kind of blood vessel can fill it

epidural space (superficial to peristeom) - meningeal artery subdural space (deep to meningeal layer) - bridging veins

7

where are the real spaces

-between periosteal and meningeal layer - sagittal fissure - transverse fissure (separates occipital and cerebellum) - venous sinuses

8

describe the pathway of cerebral spinal fluid

 

made in lateral ventricle interventricular foramina of Monro 3rd ventricle cerebral aquaduct 4th ventricle foramina magendie --> cisterna magna foramina luschka --> pontine cistern subarachnoid space arachnoid granulations dural venous sinuses

9

where are the other areas that CSF goes in the body besides the cortex

superior cistern, interpeduncular, pontomedullary, cisterna magna, and lumbar (see lecture for picture)

10

what is non-communicating hydrocephalus

when flow of CSF is obstructed in the ventricular system

11

what is a communicating hydrocephalus

when the absorption of CSF is not sufficient to remove fluid being produced

12

what are arachnoid granulations. what kind if pressure is needed

protrusion of arachnoid into the venous sinus where the CSF in the subarachnoid space can drain into the venous sinuses. CSF pressure must be greater than venous pressure

13

what are the three most common brain herniations

subfalcine, uncal, tonsilar

14

what is this

epidural hematoma

15

what is this

subdural hematoma

16

what is this 

subarachnoid hemorrhage

17

describe the full layers from the scalp to the pia mater

18

a subfalcine herniation compresses which part of the brain 

limbic cortex and comissural

19

an uncal herniation compresses which brain structures

temporal lobe and midbrain

20

what are the three layers of the blood brain barrier 

arachnoid barrier, choroid/blood CSF barrier, and actual BBB

21

how does the arachnoid barrier work

arachnoid granulations are considered one-way valves to prevent venous blood from subarachnoid space 

22

how does the blood-CSF barrier 

choroidal blood capillaries have fenestrations but tight junctions at the choroid epithelium that prevents blood from entering ventricles 

23

how does the blood brain barrier proper work

tight junctions at the capillary level with astrocytes to help

24

where is an area where there is no BBB

pineal gland

25

what are the two arterial supply of the brain (and is it anterior or posterior)

internal carotid (anterior) and vertebral (posterior) artery

26

what is the venous drainage of the brain

internal jugular vein

27

the signal from the basal ganglia to the thalamus is (excitatory/inhibitory)

inhibitory

28

what are the two structures in the red? what is the called overall

Putamen and globus pallidus. Lentiform Nucleus

29

what are the two structures in blue? what are they called overall

caudate and putamen. Striatum

30

what is this? what does it do

nucleus accumbens - connection between limbic system and basal ganglia

31

what is the top blue arrow

subthalamic nucleus

32

what is the bottom blue arrow

substantia nigra

33

what are the inputs to the basal ganglia

cerebral cortex, substantia nigra pars compacta, centromedian cortex

34

what structures outputs the info from the basal ganglia

substantia nigra pars reticulata and globus pallidus internus 

35

what is the effect of the direct pathway on the thalamus (movement, inhibition?, thalamocortical activity)

selective facilitation of movement, disinhibits thalamus, increased thalamocortical activity

36

what is the effect of the indirect pathway on the thalamus (movement, inhibition?, thalamocortical activity)

selective suppression of movement, inhibits thalamus, decreased thalamocortical activity

37

what is the pathophysiology of parkinsons

loss dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta, so there is no dopamine influence on the striatum. leads to a net inhibitory effect on the thalamus 

38

what is the pathophysiology of huntington's disease

-polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin protein which leads to the STRIATAL degeneration

-indirect-pathway selectively vulnerable

-loss of OUTPUT STRIATAL NEURONS removes the inhibitory effect on the thalamus

39

what is the dysfunction of the cerebellum

ataxia

40

what are the three functional areas of the cerebellum

1) Flocculonodular lobe/vernis

2) intermediate hemispheres

3) lateral hemispheres 

41

what is the function of the flocculonodular lobe and vernis

coordination of the proximal limb and trunk muscles (like the fasciculus cuneatus)  (vermis)

balance (FN)

vestibular-ocular reflex (FN)

42

what is the function of the intermediate hemisphere

coordinate distal limb muscles and modulate ongoing movement

43

what is the function of the lateral hemisphere

motor planning

44

what are the three pairs of peduncles in the cerebellum and do they have afferent or efferent nerves

inferior - afferent and efferent

middle - afferent only

superior - efferent primarily

45

what are the sources of afferent nerves to the cerebellar peduncles and what information do they bring

vestibular system (balance and head position)

spinal cord (proprioceptive)

pons (cortical info)

46

what are the three pairs of deep cerebellar nuclei 

- fastigial nucleus

- interposed nucleus

- dentate nucleus

47

where are the dentate and interposed nuclei found

superior penduncle

48

what intermediate targets does dentate and interposed nuclei send efferent information to 

thalamus (VA, VL) and red nucleus

49

what motor system does the dentate and interposed nuclei modulate

lateral

 

50

where is the fastigial nucleus found 

inferior peduncle

51

what intermediate targets do the fastigial nucleus send efferent info to

vestibular, reticular formation, MLF

52

which motor system does the fastigial nucleus modulate

medial

53

what kind of muscle coordination is the fastigial nucleus in charge of 

eye movements, posture, balance

54

what kind of muscle coordination is the interposed nucleus in charge of 

limb movements (pose for a funny picture!)

55

what kind of muscle coordination is the dentate nucleus in charge of

skilled learned movements (like how a dentist needs to be skilled)

56

what is the general pathway to determine cerebellar motor pathways

sensory --> cerebellar functional structure --> cerebellar deep nuclei --> target nuclei --> target

57

what is the cerebellar pathway for eye movement

vestibular

flocculonodular lobe

fastigial nuclei

vestibular nuclei

MLF

58

what are the symptoms of impaired cerebellar function of eye movement

impaired vestibulo-ocular reflex

impaired nystagmus

ocular dysmetria (overshoot and undershoot saccades)

59

what is the cerebellar pathway for postural control

proprioceptive and vestibular 

cerebellar vermis 

fastigial nucleus

vestibular nucleus

medial motor system (vestibulospinal) 

60

what are the symptoms of impaired cerebellar postural control

impaired ability to sit and stand without support

vertigo

61

what is the cerebellar pathway for truncal balance

proprioceptive and vestibular

cerebellar vermis

fastigial nucleus

vestibular and reticular formation

medial motor system (vestibulospinal and reticulospinal)

62

what is the cerebellar pathway for appendicular movement

proprioceptive

intermediate hemisphere

interposed nucleus

VA/VL

lateral motor system

63

what are the symptoms of cerebellar dysfunction of appendicular movement (ataxia)

- impaired on finger-nose-finger task

- impaired on heel-shin test

- impaired rapid alternating movements

- incoordination during limb movement

64

what is the cerebellar pathway for learned skilled movements

pontocerebellar 

lateral hemisphere

dentate nucleus

VA/VL nuclei

lateral motor system

65

what are the symptoms of cerebellar dysfunction of learned skilled movements 

- impaired rapidity & precision of performing skilled movements (e.g.playing piano)

- impaired ability to learn new skilled motor tasks