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Flashcards in Pain and Control Deck (49)
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1

What are the fives stages of response to terminal illness as demonstrated in the Kubler-Ross model?

1 denial 2 anger 3 bargaining 4 depression 5 acceptance

2

The Kubler-Ross death and dying model can be applied to most grief or depression including illness and injury, but which type of injury is it not as applicable to?

Athletic injury

3

What is the cognitive appraisal model?

Response to injury depends on individual's understanding of the injury (no stages or order)

4

Is depression following injury common among athletes?

No (refer to cognitive appraisal model)

5

What is the most common use of therapeutic modalities?

Reduce pain levels

6

What is transduction?

Process of changing energy of nociception into electrical action potential in the neuron

7

Which proprioceptors detect change in muscle length and spindle tension?

Golgi tendon organs (GTOs)

8

Which mechanoreceptors also detect change in joint position?

Pacinian corpuscles

9

Which mechanoreceptors sense pressure and touch?

Meissner's corpuscles

10

Which mechanoreceptors sense skin stretch and pressure?

Merkle cells

11

What two things determine the velocity of nerve transmission?

Diameter of the nerve and degree of myelination

12

What are the unmyelinated pain fibers? Myelinated?

Unmyelinated = C fibers
Myelinated = A-delta

13

Which first order afferent fibers are associated with only touch and vibration and NOT pain?

A-beta

14

What is the relationship between nerve fiber diameter and speed?

Increased diameter = increased speed

15

Which type of fibers are the fastest?

A-beta (greater diameter)

16

Which are faster: C fibers or A-delta fibers?

A-delta (due to myelination and increased diameter)

17

What is the location of C fibers?

Muscle, skin

18

What is the location of A-beta and A-delta fibers?

Skin

19

Which fibers have warm and cold receptors and are found in hair follicles?

A-delta

20

What are the smallest peripheral nerve fibers associated with pain?

C fibers

21

Where does the first order neuron of the pain pathway synapse?

Dorsal horn of spinal cord

22

What are the most important parts of the thalamus for pain transmission?

VPL and VPM

23

Where are the cell bodies of the third order neurons in the path pathway located?

Thalamus

24

Where do ascending pain fibers from just the head and face synapse in the thalamus?

VPM

25

Where do ascending pain fibers from the body synapse in the thalamus?

VPL

26

Where does localization and discrimination of pain transmission occur in the cortex?

Postcentral gyrus

27

What area of the brain is important for regulating emotional, autonomic, and endocrine responses to pain?

Limbic system

28

Ice treatment is an example of what kind of pain modulation?

Peripheral pain modulation

29

How does peripheral pain modulation work?

Desensitizes peripheral nociceptors and increases threshold making fewer pain impulses transmitted to the spinal cord

30

What is the gate theory of pain?

Non-painful stimulus can block transmission of noxious stimulus