Flashcards in Pain and Control Deck (49)
What are the fives stages of response to terminal illness as demonstrated in the Kubler-Ross model?
1 denial 2 anger 3 bargaining 4 depression 5 acceptance
The Kubler-Ross death and dying model can be applied to most grief or depression including illness and injury, but which type of injury is it not as applicable to?
What is the cognitive appraisal model?
Response to injury depends on individual's understanding of the injury (no stages or order)
Is depression following injury common among athletes?
No (refer to cognitive appraisal model)
What is the most common use of therapeutic modalities?
Reduce pain levels
What is transduction?
Process of changing energy of nociception into electrical action potential in the neuron
Which proprioceptors detect change in muscle length and spindle tension?
Golgi tendon organs (GTOs)
Which mechanoreceptors also detect change in joint position?
Which mechanoreceptors sense pressure and touch?
Which mechanoreceptors sense skin stretch and pressure?
What two things determine the velocity of nerve transmission?
Diameter of the nerve and degree of myelination
What are the unmyelinated pain fibers? Myelinated?
Unmyelinated = C fibers
Myelinated = A-delta
Which first order afferent fibers are associated with only touch and vibration and NOT pain?
What is the relationship between nerve fiber diameter and speed?
Increased diameter = increased speed
Which type of fibers are the fastest?
A-beta (greater diameter)
Which are faster: C fibers or A-delta fibers?
A-delta (due to myelination and increased diameter)
What is the location of C fibers?
What is the location of A-beta and A-delta fibers?
Which fibers have warm and cold receptors and are found in hair follicles?
What are the smallest peripheral nerve fibers associated with pain?
Where does the first order neuron of the pain pathway synapse?
Dorsal horn of spinal cord
What are the most important parts of the thalamus for pain transmission?
VPL and VPM
Where are the cell bodies of the third order neurons in the path pathway located?
Where do ascending pain fibers from just the head and face synapse in the thalamus?
Where do ascending pain fibers from the body synapse in the thalamus?
Where does localization and discrimination of pain transmission occur in the cortex?
What area of the brain is important for regulating emotional, autonomic, and endocrine responses to pain?
Ice treatment is an example of what kind of pain modulation?
Peripheral pain modulation
How does peripheral pain modulation work?
Desensitizes peripheral nociceptors and increases threshold making fewer pain impulses transmitted to the spinal cord