Flashcards in Pain Assessment and Management Deck (22):
Multidimensional Scale that we use
Assess the dogs...
vocalization, attention to the painful area, ambulation, reaction to palpation around the wound.
Advocate for _________ in your clinic.
Use a validated ________ scale
Assess patients ________ their treatments
Before and after
Assess patients often during first hours to
plan the efficacy and frequency of treatment
What are the 5 steps for conscious pain perception?
What kind of painful stimuli can be transduced into an electrical impulse?
mechanic, thermal, chemical
A alpha fibers
-Large, thick myelinated sheaths, rapid conduction (>30 m/s)
A beta fibers
-Large, thick myelinated sheaths, rapid conduction (>10 m/s)
- Normally pleasant to touch, can provoke pain over time
A gamma fibers
- Medium size, light myelination
- sharp pain
- small, unmyelinated
- slow burning/throbbing pain
_____ and _____ receptors exist...
Inotropic and metabotropic(G protein)
The ___________ si the most important projection tract in carnivores.
plasticity of spinal cord, an exaggerated response (Allodynia and hyperalgesia are both examples)
when a non-painful stimulus causes pain (A beta fibers causing pain)
a painful stimulus creating a more painful response than it should
Opioids function by
- modulating at the spinal cord, Transduction
- hyperpolarization of the cell.
alpha-2 agonists function by
inhibiting NT release and modulating
Local anesthetics function by
- Transmission step
- Na+ Channel blockers (don't use in acidic environment)
NSAIDs function by
- Block Transduction
- Anti Inflam and anti - nociceptive
- COX inhibitors (stop arachadonic acid -> Prostaglandin)
Steroids function by
- anti-inflammatory (inhibit phospholipase A from producing Arachadonic acid)