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Flashcards in Pediatric Psychology Deck (66)
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1

Potential Roles of Primary Care Clinicians

Prevention
Early identification/screening
Early intervention/engagement
Referral/collaborative care
Monitoring progress in care
Care coordination

2

Barriers of Mental Health Care in Primary Care Settings

Ambivalence/variability
Discomfort
Time constraints
Poor payment
Variable access to MH specialty resources
Administrative barriers to MH services
Limited information exchange with MH specialists
Stigma

3

Assisting a Parent Caring for a Child with a Disability

Seek the assistance of other parent
Know that you are not alone
Rely o positive resources in your life
Take it one day at a time
Seek information
Do not be intimidated
Maintain a positive outlook
Find programs for your child
Take care of yourself
Keep daily routines as normal as possible
KEEP YOUR SENSE OF HUMOR

4

What is important in the assessment of a psychiatric condition in a pediatric patient?

Developmental milestones

5

Approach to the Adolescent Mental Health Patient

No judgements or assumptions
Rules of confidentiality: outline the rules, not absolute, ask them to explain confidentiality, alone time with the patient
HEADSSS assessment

6

Define HEADSSS

H: home
E: education
A: activities
D: drugs
S: sex
S: suicide/depression
S: safety

7

Define Intellectual Disability

Neurodevelopment disorder with multiple etiologies that encompass a broad spectrum of functioning, disability, and strengths

8

Define Global Developmental Delay

Children under 5 who fail to meet expected developmental milestones and have significant impairments in several areas of functioning

9

Two Components of Intellectual Disability

Adaptive behavior
Intellectual functioning

10

Define Adaptive Behavior

Collection of conceptual, social, and practical skills that all people learn in order to function in their daily lives

11

Define Intellectual Functioning

Reasoning, learning, and problem solving

12

Clinical Features of a Patient with an Intellectual Disability

Parent concerns
Younger sibling overtakes an older sibling
Fails to meet expected developmental milestones
Immature behavior
Difficulty learning
Severely affected

13

Causes of Intellectual Disability

Genetic
Embryonic development
Congenital infections
Congenital hypothyroidism
Teratogens: alcohol, lead & valproate
Environmental deprivation (Abuse/neglect)
Hereditary abnormalities

14

Screening Tools for Intellectual Disability

Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ): 4-60 months
Bayley Infant Neurodevelopment Screener (BINS): 4-25 months
Brigance Screens-II: 4-90 months
Infant-Toddler Checklist for Language and Communications: 6-24 months
Parent's Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS)

15

DSM V for Intellectual Disability Criteria

IQ = 70
Deficits or impairments in adaptive function in at least 2 of the following: communication, self-care, home living, social/interpersonal skills, use of community resources, self-direction, functional academic skills, work, leisure, health, safety
Onset before age 18 years old

16

Treatment of Intellectual Disability

Early intervention program
Multidisciplinary team support
Family support & counseling

17

Typical Learning Disabilities

Dyslexia
Dyscalculia
Dysgraphia

18

Epidemiology of Dyslexia

Boys > Girls
Run in families
Often in patients with ADHD

19

Signs/Symptoms of Dyslexia

Delayed language production
Speech articulation difficulties
Difficulties remember letters, numbers, & colors
Reversals or visual confusions (b/d, m/w, h/n)

20

Common Problems with Individuals with Dyslexia

Processing & understanding what they hear
Difficulty comprehending rapid instructions
Following more than one command at a time
Remembering the sequence of things
Reversals of letters (b/d)
Reversal of words (saw/was)
May read from right to left
May fail to see/hear similarities & differences in letters & words
May not recognize spacing between words
May be unable to sound out pronunciation of an unfamiliar word

21

Dyslexia Screening & Diagnosis

Medical exam
Cognitive exam
Sensory processing
Educational
Psychological factors
Vision
Hearing
Neurologic
Psychologic assessment

22

Treatment of Dyslexia

Remedial education
Testing can reveal areas to work on
Use several senses to learn
No way to correct underlying brain malfunction

23

Dyslexia Prognosis

Tutoring each week
Progress may be slow
Milder forms: read well enough to succeed in school
Severe forms: may never be able to read well

24

Define Dyscalculia

Difficulty performing math calculations

25

Signs/Symptoms of Dyscalculia

Difficulty understanding number lines, carrying/borrowing numbers, word problems, & counting change or money

26

Strategies for Dyscalculia

Allow use of fingers & scratch paper
Use diagrams & draw math concepts
Provide peer assistance
Suggest use of graph paper

27

Define Dysgraphia

Learning disability resulting from the difficulty in expressing thoughts in writing

28

Dysgraphia Difficulties

Handwriting
Grammar & syntax
Formulating, expressing, & organizing ideas in writing
Ability to use sound-letter relationships effectively

29

Who can diagnose dysgraphia?

Psychologist who specializes in learning disabilities

30

Treatment of Dysgraphia

Accommodations
Modifications: essays shorter or put in question form
Remediations: writing practice