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Flashcards in Pregnancy Physiology Deck (84)
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1

What days is the two cell stage present?

First 3 days of development

2

Define Morula

Solid mass of blastomere cells

3

When does a morula appear?

Day 4

4

What day does the morula become a blastocyst?

Day 5

5

What is the outer layer of the blastocyst consist of?

Trophoblast
Placenta & fetal membranes

6

What is the inner layer of the blastocyst consist of?

Cell mass to become the embryo & fluid

7

What surrounds the blastocyst?

Zona pellucida

8

When does implantation occur?

Day 6-7

9

What is the stem cell of the placenta?

Progenitor cytotrophoblast cell

10

2 Differentiation of Progenitor Cytotrophoblast Cells

Extravillous cytotrophoblast (inner)
Villous cytotrophoblast (outer)

11

Extravillous Cytotrophoblast (Inner) Cells

"Invasive" into decide & myometrium
"Invasive" into the spiral arteries (form uteroplacental arteries)
Form core of villi

12

Villous Cytotrophoblast (Outer) Cells

Forms placental villi with base of cytotrophoblast cells
Forms umbilical arteries & vein

13

Function of Villous Cytotrophoblast (Outer) Cells

Transport of gases
Nutrient & wastes
Synthesis of peptide & steroid hormones that influence placental, fetal, & maternal systems

14

Dicidua

Influence by progesterone & later with the invasion of trophoblasts

15

What forms the basal plate of the placenta?

Decidual cells

16

Define Trophoblast

Layer of trophoblast cells always separate the embryonic circulation from maternal blood & decidua

17

Define Nitabuch's Layer

Layer of fibrin between the boundary zone of compact endometrium & the cytotrophoblastic shell in the placenta

18

Functions of the Placenta

Extra brain
Interface between mom & baby
Prevents rejection of fetal allograft
Enables respiratory gas exchange
Transports nutrients
Eliminates fetal waste products
Secretes peptide & steroid hormones

19

Metabolic Functions of the Placenta

Glycogen synthesis
Cholesterol synthesis
Removal of lactate
Protein metabolism

20

Function of Cholesterol Synthesis

Precursor for production of progesterone & estrogen

21

Define Lactate

Waste product of placental metabolism

22

Placental Peptide Hormones

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
Human placental lactogen (hPL)
Placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
Placental growth factor

23

Function of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)

Maintains corpus luteum production of progesterone until placenta takes over at 6-8 weeks
Regulates placental steroid production

24

Function of Human Placental Lactogen (hPL)

Antagonizes maternal secretion of insulin to increase fetal glucose supply

25

Function of Placental Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH)

Stimulates fetal ACTH resulting in fetal adrenal making DHEA-S as precursor to placental estrogen

26

Placental Steroid Hormones

Progesterone
Estrogens
Enzymes to degrade maternal glucocorticoids

27

Function of Progesterone

Maintains non-contractile uterus
Anti-inflammatory & immunosuppressive to protect fetus

28

Function of Estrogens

Stimulated by placental HCG
Maternal & fetal blood supply DHEAS

29

Enzymes to Degrade Maternal Glucocorticoids

Placenta regulates exposure of fetus to glucocorticoids
Regulating fetal organ development & maturation

30

Placental Transfer/Transport

CO2 & O2 exchange
Glucose
Amino acid
Fatty acids
Immunoglobulin G
Drugs