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1

How old is the earth

4.6 billion years old

2

What are the different stages of the history of the earth ?

1. Time before the Cambrian explosion

2. Paleozoic era

3. Mesozoic era

4. Cenozoic era

3

Cambrian explosion

Refers to the sudden appearance of animals that resemble those in current life

--> "The beginning of life"
--> started 542m years ago

4

Paleozoic era
(540m - 250m)

Emergence of fish, land, plants, insects

--> followed by a vanishing of 95% of the marine species + 70% of the terrestrial species

5

Mesozoic era
(250m-66m)

Age of dinosaurs + beginning of mammals, birds, flowers

--> ended with a massive extinction, giving way to an expansion of mammals

6

Cenozoic era
(66m-now)

Age of mammals

7

The emergence of humans

6-7m years ago: Class of bipeds were forced out of the jungle

2m years ago: Beginning of genus Homo (erectus, habilis)

200k years ago: Homo sapiens in Africa

50k years ago: Homo sapiens start to expand

8

Which factors led to the massive expansion of the Homo Sapiens ?

1. Production of more advanced tools

2. Development of language that is characterized by

a) productivity
b) semanticity
c) displacement

9

Neolithic revolution

Refers to the transition from a nomadic hunter-gatherer society to farming and settlement

--> 10.000 BCE

10

Fertile Crescent

Region on the middle east with a high level of civilization that included

a) Ancient Mesopotamia
b) Ancient Egypt

--> 3.000 BCE

11

Preliterate Civilization

Civilization before writing was invented

12

What are the characteristics of the preliterate civilization ?

1. Knowledge is confined to "know-how" without theoretical understanding of the underlying principles

2. Fluidity of knowledge

3. Collection of myths and stories about the beginning of the universe (Animism)

13

Animism

Refers to the belief that objects and nature are inhabited by spirits with human like characteristics

14

Lindbergs view on the preliterate civilization

Myths + stories reinforce the values and attitudes of the community and fulfill the need humans have for explanatory principles

--> brings order, unity, meaning to the events around them

15

Tylors view on the preliterate civilization

Preliterates looked at the world like children and endowed everything with a nature analogous to their own

--> animism

16

Where did written language first appear ?

It appeared separately between 6.000 to 300 BCE in

a) Egypt
b) China
c) Sumer
d) America

--> it was preceded by protocol-writing

17

Writing systems were a combination of ... ?

a) Pictograms

b) Phonograms

18

Pictograms

Pictures that resemble the persons, animals + objects they represent

--> proto-writing

19

Phonograms

Signs to represent sounds of the spoken language

--> then gradually replaced by phonemes + syllables

20

What is the main advantage of written records ?

They form an external memory, which allows an accumulation of knowledge

21

What were Socrates' main concerns concerning written records ?

According to him, written records will make humans forgetful, because they will stop exercising their memory as they can rely on what is written down

22

Why are written records important to science ?

1. Ability to build on existing insights

2. Ability to avoid the pitfalls that hindered predecessors

3. Written records provide the vases of the cumulative nature of science

EXTERNAL MEMORY

23

What fosters an easier reading acquisition ?

1. When the language has a transparent relationship between spelling + sound

2. Putting spaces between words (8th century)

24

Scholastic method

Study method in which students unquestioningly memories and recite text that are thought to convey unchanging truths

--> success depended more on the students perseverance than intelligence

NO CRITICAL THINKING

25

In which way were numbers represented originally ?

1. One was always able to subitise

2. Due to difficulty to discern more than 4 lines in a glance, the tallies were grouped

--> gouping occured in fives

26

Subitising

Distinguishing between 1,2 and 3 entities

27

Why is the number 5 so important + why is it used as a base ?

1. Number 5 is the first entity that exceeds the perceptual limits

2. Coincides with the number of fingers on a hand

3. Gradually a separate symbol was used for 5 and multiple 5s

28

How did the Greeks represent numbers ?
(600 BCE)

By developing a written system for the numbers 1-24

--> Alpha to omega
--> used a 10 base structure similar to roman numerals

29

Place coding system

System in which the meaning of a sign not only depends on its form but also on its position in string, which required the invention of a symbol for 0


--> developed in India
--> used in arabic numerals, then taken up in western europe

30

Why were greek and roman number systems deficient ?

Because their notation did not assign a meaning to the place of the digits (Place coding)