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1

Why were german universities dominant and most advanced in the 19th century ?

They were reformed to make them more dynamic + advance the new sciences, which was achieved by including:

1. Wissenschaft
--> scientific research

2. Bildung
--> the making of good citizens/education

2

Wilhelm Wundt

Was a german physician who became interested in applying the physiological methods to psychological phenomena

--> opened the first laboratory of experimental psychology (1879) in Leipzig

3

How did Wundt define Psychology ?
(Physiological psychology)

It refers to the way in which people look upon themselves on the basis of INTERNAL PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES that inform them about the phenomena perceived by the EXTERNAL SENSES

--> study of sensory phenomena in relation to physical stimuli

ex.: just noticeable difference

4

Which impact did the opening of the laboratory by Wundt have on Psychology ?
(1879)

1. Its opening was coined as the official date of "birth" of academic psychology

2. Wundt used it to actively promote psychological research

3. Many psychologists got their initial training here

4. Caused many different laboratories to open around the world + increased interest

5

Which were the 3 main groups of methods used by Wundt ?

1. Experimental methods (Physiology)
--> Fechner

2. Introspection

3. Historical Method
--> info about the psychology of individuals can be obtained by looking at culture

6

Demand characteristics

Refer to the fact that participants change their behavior when they have info about the experiments purpose

--> often occurs without knowledge
--> wasn't known at Wundts time

7

Despite the Criticisms against Introspection, Wundt firmly insisted on its importance.

How did he try to encounter these criticisms ?

By making a distinction between

1. Innere Wahrnehmung

2. Experimentelle Selbstbeobachtung

-->2. would provide more control, therefore qualify as a valid scientific method to acquire info about the contents of consciousness

8

Historical Method

Refers to the study of mental differences as revealed by differences between cultures

--> well suited to studying things like social aspects of human thought

9

Why didn't Wundt have as much of an impact as for example Newton or Darwin ?

1. Didnt produce a useful theory/empirical discovery

2. His writings weren't clear nor easy to read + included some contradictions

--> therefore "only" known as the "father of experimental psychology"

10

William James

Was an american physician who became interested in psychology through his teachings

--> wrote "The principles of psychology" (1890)

11

The principles of Psychology
(James, 1875)

1. Most influential textbook of early psychology

2. Accessible + clear account of what was known about psychology at end of 19th century

12

How did James impact Psychology ?

1. His textbook was essential for the foundation + expansion of psychology in the USA

2. Defended Introspection, despite criticism

3. "Father" of functionalism

==> however Anti-Experimental methods

13

Functionalism

Examined the practical FUNCTIONS of the human mind, inspired by the evolutionary theory

--> according to James the humans mind had emerged as an adaptation to increase the chances of survival

--> opened the way to comparative psychology

14

Structuralism
(Tichener, 1876)

Aimed to discover the STRUCTURES of the human mind by means of introspection

--> Perception is the sum of sensations

15

Structuralism was not very influential because of criticism from 3 sides.

Which were those ?

1. Würzburg school + Binet
--> Imageless thoughts

2. Functionalists
--> limited usefulness of the knowledge of structures of mind

3. Gestalt psychologists
--> humans are more than the sum of their individual sensations

16

Imageless thought

Coming to a conclusion without having a clue of the processes that underlay it

--> humans aren't aware of many thought processes + cannot report them, let alone dissect them

17

Edward Titchener

Was an Oxford graduate, who then studied under Wundt

--> promoted structuralism + defended introspection

18

Gestalt Psychology

According to them, the brain had self organizing principles + people experience the world in terms of gestalts

--> countermovement to structuralism

19

Würzburg school

Refers to a group of psychologists at Uni of Würzburg who used introspection but came to different conclusion from those of Wundt + Titchener

--> stressed the examples of imageless thoughts

20

Théodule Ribot

Was a professor in Paris, who questioned Comtes negative view on Introspection + Psychology in general

--> sought to bring the foreign advances in psychology to France

--> published 2 books, discussing german + english advances in psychology

--> was an author, never an experimentalist himself

21

Jean Martin Charcot

Was one of the first neurologists who related clinical symptoms to anatomical brain dysfunctions

--> particularly interested in hypnosis + hysteria

22

Hysteria

Refers to a condition of emotional distress often accompanied by physical symptoms for which no organic origin could be found

23

Alfred Binet

Was a french physician, best known for his development of the first valid intelligence test

24

How did Binet come up with the idea of the Intelligence test ?

1. First tried to measure intelligence on the basis of

a) Psychophysical measures
b) Measures of skull

2. Used meaningful questions, whose solutions didn't rely on info learned in school

--> w/ aid by Théodore Simon

25

What was concluded by the results of the Intelligence test ?

1. There was a relationship between the number of questions the child could answer + the childs degree of retardation

2. Developing children can solve problems of increasing difficulty

26

Why was Psychology in France not as advanced as in other Western parts of the world ?

Psychology was seen as part of humanities as a result of Comtés writings

--> according to the french it wasn't a science

27

Asylum
(16th century)

Institutions for the insane, modeled after prisons, later after hospitals

--> aim was to re-educate them as good, productive members of society

28

Neurologists

Physicians who were interested in the treatment of milder forms of mental problems outside the asylum

--> specialists of the NS
--> Charcot was a forerunner, Freud one of the first

29

Sigmund Freud

Was a german neurologist who started psychological treatment of his patients

--> initiation of Psychoanalysis

30

Psychopathology

Refers to the scientific study of mental disorders