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1

Correspondence theory of truth
(Aristotle)

States that truth is a property of a state and is achieved when the statement corresponds with the physical reality

2

Scepticism

Deny the existence of a physical reality, but denies that we can have reliable knowledge of it

3

Augustine's view on knowledge

According to him true knowledge was based on Gods revelations

--> adopted Aristotles logic + sought to reconcile it with christian theology

4

The rise of the scientific approach can be summarized as a shift in balance from ... to ... ?

Deductive to inductive reasoning

--> before the scientific revolution deductive reasoning was generally accepted (Plato, Aristotle)

5

Bacon proposed the inductionist approach.
He also warned not to search exclusively for positive evidence.

What did he propose instead ?

One should make use of 3 types of tables

1. Essence + Presence
--> all instances in which the phenomenon is present

2. Deviation/Absence in Proximity
--> comparing/matching the two tables

3. Degrees or Comparison
--> instances in which the phenomenon is present in dif. degrees

6

Deductive reasoning

Starting from known statements, then deducing new conclusions

--> stressed in rationalism

ex.: children younger than 6 can't speak
Hattie is 5
--> therefore Hattie can't speak

7

Inductive reasoning

Conclusions are drawn on the basis of convergent observations

--> conclusions aren't necessarily true
--> stressed in empiricism

8

Gradually natural philosophers started to argue that inductive reasoning could lead to conclusions as probable as truth if .. ?

1. Facts were collected in large numbers + objectively

2. Effects could be replicated

3. Theories lead to new verifiable predictions

9

The fundamental antithesis of philosophy
(Whewell) + Comte

Stated that there is no clear distinction between observation + idea or fact + theory

--> they are closely connected and influence each other

10

Demarcation Criteria

Refer to the lines that would define science + its borders

--> used to define the specificity of science

11

Philosophy of science

Refers to a branch of science dealing with questions related to the status + uniqueness of science

12

Vienna Circle
(Wiener Kreis)

Was a group of scholars in Vienna that were logical positivists

--> found prominence with their publication of the "manifesto"

13

Logical positivism

Movement that tried to reconcile the practical success of sciences with the methodological cones formulated by philosophers

--> put forward important demarcation criterion
--> due to major criticism only had little impact

14

1929 Manifesto of the Vienna circle put forward important demarcation criterion.

Which were those ?

1. Theres 2 types of truth: empirical + logical

2. Empirical truths are established through EMPIRICAL VERIFICATION

3. Logical truths are based on DEDUCTIVE REASONING

4. Statement not belonging to one of the categories are meaningless

15

Empirical verification
(Verificationism)

States that a proposition is only meaningful if it can be verified as true or false through objective + value-free observation

--> was seen as the demarcation criterion of science

16

Criticisms on Empirical verification ?

1. Verification is logically impossible
--> inductive reasoning

2. Scientific theories are full of non observable variables

3. Sometimes things aren't observable until one knows how to search for them

4. How should we define "observable" ?

17

What is the difference between science + non-science ?
(Popper)

Science: Based on facts + constantly questions its explanations

e.g.: observations + verifications

Non-science: Based on ideas

e.g.: dogmas, prejudices

18

Falsificationism
(Popper)

States that statements are only scientific if they can be falsified empirically

--> a theory would therefore rule out a range of outcomes

ex.: if a researcher repeatedly tried to reject a theory and failed, this would be strong evidence for the correctness

=> alternative to verificationism

19

Hypothetico - deductive method

Refers to a method that involves a combination of inductive + deductive reasoning

1. A theory is formulated, on the basis of inductive reasoning

2. A testable prediction/Hypothesis is formulated, on the basis of deductive reasoning
--> to evaluate the correctness of theory

3. Prediction is put to falsification test
--> provides new data from further theorizing

20

When does a theory reach high scientific status according to Popper ?

When the degree of falsifiability is high

--> the clearer + more precise a theory, the higher the status if it stands repeated falsification tests

21

Conformation bias

The tendency people have to search for evidence that confirm their opinions

--> goes against falsificationism

22

Should theories be thrown away as soon as they are falsified ?

No,

--> often times it is better to adapt an existing, good theory so that is is no longer contradicted by the available empirical evidence

BUT: modified theories should become more falsifiable

23

Ad hoc modifications

Refer to modifications that are not testable or made a theory less falsifiable

--> unacceptable

24

Why is falsification a better criterion than verification ?

Because it is logically possible to falsify a statement based on inductive reasoning

--> the more falsifiable, the better

25

What are the different stage of Kuhns theory of scientific progress

1. Pre science
--> discipline without a general theory

2. Normal science

3. Crisis

4. Scientific revolution

=> all scientific knowledge is relative + time-dependent

26

Stage of Normal science

1. Theory is formed, which includes a paradigm

2. Scientists solve puzzles within the paradigm + defend it

3. Modifications have to stay within paradigm

27

Stage of crisis

1. Anomalies have accumulated in normal science + modifications become increasingly adhoc

2. This triggered crisis

3. Scientists are now more open to an alternative

28

Scientific revolution

Occurs when an alternative to the old paradigm is found (paradigm shift)

--> DRP is replaced by the PRP
--> reason why scientific progress is not steady + cumulate

29

Paradigm

Refers to a set of common views of what the discipline is about + how the problems must be approached

--> start of science

30

Degenerative research programme (DRP)

Refers to a paradigm that doesn't allow researchers to make new predictions

--> requires an increasing number of ad hoc modifications to account for the empirical findings