what shape are the superior and inferior surfaces of the vertebral body?
kidney shaped and quite flat
lateral to the anterior longitudinal ligament is the attachments of the ___ of the diaphragm (upper _ lumbar on right, upper _ lumbar on left)
attachments of the CRURA of the diaphragm (upper 3 lumbar on the right, upper 2 lumbar on left)
what is an apophysis
a rim of smoother, less pitter, raised surface which is the second ossification centre of the vertebral body
what is found on the posterior surface of the vertebral body to transmit the nutrient arteries?
what attaches/projects from the lateral edges of the posterior surface of the vertebral body, more superior then inferior?
what is the function of the pedicles?
transmit tension and bending forces
are pedicles short or long?
do pedicles overlap one another?
No except in the T-spine
what projects from each pedicle toward midline?
lamina fuse together forming the roof of the ___
what is the function of the lamina?
disperse forces applied to the SAPs and IAPs
describe the superior edges of the lamina
irregular and sharp
describe the lateral edge of the lamina
rounded and smooth
where is the inferior articular process (IAP) found?
at the inferolateral corner of the lamina
where is the superior articular process of the lamina found?
superior (and with the pedicle)
describe the lamina
do the lamina overlap?
yes but not as much as the thoracic
what defines the vertebral foramen?
describe the superior and inferior surfaces of the superior articular process (facet)
concave (superior and convex (inferior) surfaces
which direction does the superior articular process (facet) face in the L-spine?
faces posteromedially - important for function
which direction does the inferior articular process (facet) face in the L-spine?
what is the function of the zygoapophyseal joint?
resists forward sliding and twisting
what is another name for fat pads in the lumbar spine?
fibroadipose tissue or meniscoids
what forms the vertebral foramen?
nerual arch and the back of the vertebral body
what shape is the vertebral foramen?
Compare the size of the vertebral foramen in the L-spine to the C-spine and T-Spine.
Larger then in the thoracic spine and smaller than in the cervical spine
Explain why the L-spine vertebral foramen are larger than the thoracic foramen and smaller than cervical foramen.
Size is based on neural distrubution and increased need for mobility (needs more room for spinal cord to move).
because conventional surgies are often done in the prone position how are the anterior and posterior walls of the vertebral foramen described?
identified as the floor (anterior) and roof (posterior)
below what level does the vertebral foramen house the cauda equina (tail of the spinal cord)
the spinous process projects ___ from the junction of the __
the spinous process projects POSTERIORLY from the junction of the LAMINA