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1

Sunderlin et al

2005

2

2005

Sunderlin et al

3

World Bank, 2001

2.8 billion people live on less than $2 a day

4

Who stated that 2.8 billion people live on less than $2 a day

World Bank, 2001

5

Brosius, 1997; and Poor 1986

Disappearance of natural forests in developing countries negatively affects the livelihoods of people dependent on forest products and services

6

Who states that the disappearance of natural forests in developing countries negatively affects the livelihoods of people dependent on forest products and services

Brosius, 1997; and Poor 1986

7

What should be considered together

Poverty and loss of forests

8

Who receives the impacts of climate change the most

Developing countries, and the poor within these

9

What tend to occupy the same spaces

Rural poverty and natural forests

10

World Bank 2003

World bank (2003) found that a large amount of poor people live on ‘fragile’ lands including slopes, arid zones, and forest ecosystems

11

Who found that a large amount of poor people live on ‘fragile’ lands including slopes, arid zones, and forest ecosystems

World Bank 2003

12

How many people live in forested areas

240 million people (World Bank, 2003)

13

What does the World Bank (2003) consider forests as

Environmentally fragile lands

14

Why do poor people live in forested areas

Because they live on areas that are relatively untouched by rapidly changing socioeconomic systems

15

Who can depend on forests

Some traditional/indigenous people

16

What are forests a refuge for

The powerless and the poor

17

Why is it easy for people to survive in forests and make a livelihood

Easy access to most forests

18

What does the easy access to most forests mean

It makes it easier for people to survive there and form livelihoods

19

ways forests can be used

hunting, gathering, cultivation, agriculture

20

What are the 3 categories of forest-dependent people

-Traditinal/indigenous
-Non traditional but have long lived there
-People who have been displaced and migrated to forests

21

Power of people who live in or near forests

They tend to be politically weak or powerless

22

What reinforces the political weakness of forest-dependent people

Their geographical distance from urban centres. in these centres political alliances favour forest conservation

23

Wunder (2001)

Bringing together forest conservation and policy is unlikley

24

Who argues that bringing together forest conservation and policy is unlikely

Wunder (2001)

25

What has happened over the last several decades

Incomes have risen and forests have declined

26

What is one method to achieve both poverty reduction and forest conservation

To focus on economic growth as this would reduce poverty, and then over time forest conservation will take place (this has happened in wealthy countries)

27

Forest conservation in wealthy countries

Since 1950 agricultural intensification in Europe and North America has re-conserved 16 million ha of farmlands to forests

28

What shouldn't we assume

That less developed countries should follow in the footsteps of more developed ones

29

What solution does this paper argue for

Site-level programs and projects

30

What do people need to understand

People need to understand all positive and negative outcomes in terms of forest cover and human well-being