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Ecology (BSC 385) > Test 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (142)
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1

Teleology

the explanation of phenomena by the purpose they serve rather than by postulated cause

2

Fitness

relative ability to survive and reproduce

3

Adaptation

trait that improves the fitness of an organism

4

Natural Selection

the increase in the frequency of individuals with inherited traits that increase their fitness relative to other individuals

5

Phenotype

the characteristic morphology, physiology, and behavior of the organism

6

Genotype

the sum total of an organism's genes. Determines the phenotype

7

Genes

a sequence of DNA that codes for the amino acid sequence that constructs a specific protein

8

Mutation

a random change in the DNA sequence of a gene

9

Population Genetics

a field of genetics that analyzes the dynamics of genes in an entire population

10

Gene Pool

the sum total of alleles in a population

11

Allele Frequencies

the proportion each allele represents in the gene pool

12

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

a mathematical representation of the genotype frequencies of a population in which the allele and genotype frequencies are not changing (i.e.: Not evolving)

13

Genetic Drift

random changes in allele frequencies

14

Gene Flow

the net loss or gain of certain alleles by movement of individuals

15

Mutation Pressure

change in allele frequency due to the origin of new alleles in the population

16

Selection Coefficient

the proportion of a genotype that is not represented in the next generation due to death or reproductive failure

17

Directional Selection

a form of selection in which one tail of the bell curve is favored

18

Stabilizing Selection

the form of selection in which the central portion of the phenotypic bell curve is favored

19

Evolutionary Trade-Offs

the idea that many traits that confer a fitness advantage with respect to one aspect of the environment can also have a fitness cost relative to another

20

Disruptive Selection

a form of selection in which the two tails of the phenotypic bell curve are favored

21

Non-Darwinian Evolution

genetic drift

22

Effective Population Size

the subset of the total population that mates at random

23

Phenotypic Plasticity

the ability of an organism to produce different phenotypes in different environments

24

Heritability

a measure of the proportion of the phenotypic variation for a trait that is determined by additive effects of its gene

25

Ecotype

a genetically distinct population that is adapted to local environmental conditions

26

Red Queen Hypothesis

the idea that the environment changes faster than adaptations can arise by natural selection

27

Adaptive Landscape

a graphical representation of the fitness associated with different genotypes in a population

28

What did Darwin observe?

-variability of life forms
-similarities between life forms that were not located near each other

29

What were Darwin's logical arguments?

-heritable variation within species
-prodigious reproductive potential of organisms
-intense competition and high mortality

30

Natural selection states that

individuals with inherited traits that increase their fitness will increase in frequency in the population relative to other competing individuals