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Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (191)
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1

Water moves in the hydrolytic cycle via

fluxes between major pools

2

Abiotic factors such as ___ are important in shaping aquatic communities

-temperature
-salinity
-light
-pressure
-oxygen content

3

What are lotic systems?

streams and rivers

4

The most valuable marine communities occur

near shore

5

Broad sense heritability

the proportion of the total variation in a phenotypic trait that is due to the genetic differences among individuals
-ranges from 0-1

6

Narrow sense heritability

the proportion of the total phenotypic variance that is due to additive genetic variance, Va
-ranges from 0-1

7

Stimulus response

a specific behavior elicited by a specific stimulus
ex: courtship displays

8

Communication

any action by one individual that alters the probability of a behavior of another

9

Natural selection

fitness refers to both an organism's ability to survive and reproduce

10

Sexual selection

some traits may improve reproductive success while reducing survival

11

How can you tell if an organism is male or female?

females produce larger gametes than males

12

Monogamy

when a male mates with a single female

13

What is serial monogamy?

a monogamous relationship that lasts for a single breeding season

14

Polygyny

when a male mates with more than one female during a breeding season

15

Polyandry

females mate with more than one male during a breeding season

16

Inclusive fitness

the relative ability to transfer one's genes, or copies of them, into the next generation

17

What are the equations for broad sense heritability?

H^2 = Vg/Vp
Vp = Vg + Ve
-Vg: genetic variation among indiv.
-Ve: environmental variation
-Vp: total phenotypic variation

18

What are the equations for narrow sense sense heritability?

1) h^2 = Va/Va+Vd+Ve
-Va: variation due to additive genetic differences between indiv.
-Vd: the effect of dominance (the masking of recessive genes by dominant ones)
-Ve: environmental variation
2) "the breeder's equation"
R = h^2s
-s: selection coefficient
-R: change in the trait over time
-h^2: heritability

19

Behaviors are a result of ___ as well as ___

genetic makeup; environment and experience as an individual

20

Traits with high heritability respond to natural selection ___ than traits with low heritability

more rapidly

21

If h^2 is high, the rate of evolution is ___

greater

22

Females are limited by ___ and ___, but not ___

-number of eggs they can make and other investments
-NOT MATES

23

Female fitness increases as a function of the quality of the progeny, making ___ more important

mate choice

24

Males are limited by ___, not ___

-number of mates
-NOT SPERM

25

Male fitness increases with ___

number of females he inseminates

26

When there is competition for mates, sexual selection will be

stronger

27

Which sex is normally competitive?

males

28

Which sex is normally choosy?

females

29

What does Bateman's principle say?

-because males compete, they experience greater variation in reproductive success than females
-leads to a strong selection on males
-sexual selection and asexual dimorphism are tightly related

30

What are the 3 ways that males compete?

-combat
-post copulatory competition
-infanticide