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Ecology (BSC 385) > Test 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (237)
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1

How would you assess the importance of density-dependent processes in bighorn sheep?
A. look at correlations between sheep populations and rainfall
B. look at correlations between reproduction/mortality and rainfall
C. look at correlation between reproduction/mortality and sheep population size

Look at correlations between reproduction/mortality and sheep population size

2

Stable populations fluctuate within relatively ___ limits

narrow

3

Population stability is achieved by the sum of both

density-independent and density-dependent regulatory factors

4

T or F? The population may be stable but not necessarily at equilibrium

T

5

Equilibrium implies regulation via

density-dependent factors

6

T or F? Density-dependent control always results in stability

F

7

What is a metapopulation?

a group of populations in a landscape composed of habitat of varying quality and linked by migration

8

The metapopulation is comparatively ___ because it's composed of a set of populations that fluctuate independently

stable

9

Life history comprises:

1. the pattern of development and growth
2. life span
3. the timing and quantity of reproduction

10

Selection's perfect organism would

-be mature at birth
-continuously produce lots of high-quality offspring
-live forever

11

The amount of energy that is available to an organism over the course of its life is

finite

12

Finite energy drives the importance of trade-offs in the evolution of organismal life histories

principle of allocation

13

Life span (i.e. senescence) is influenced by an organism's ability to keep itself going at the expense of

decreases in potential reproduction

14

What are the trade-offs of reproduction?

-when is sexual maturation optimal?
-what is the optimal number of offspring to have?
-what is the optimal parental investment for each offspring?

15

Life history traits are optimized by

natural selection to maximize parental fitness

16

Adaptive life history strategy evolves as

the life history traits evolve in response to ecological conditions

17

Life history traits do not evolve in isolation and are linked via

energy trade-offs (principle of allocation)

18

Investment in each life history trait has a

benefit and a cost to the organism

19

For each life stage, there is an optimal

investment into a certain life history trait

20

Investment beyond the optimum investment into a certain life history trait,

reduces fitness by limiting energy available for other important functions

21

What is teleology?

the idea that purpose exists in evolution in the same sense that it does for human intention

22

T or F? Evolution has no pre-designed or intentional goal

T

23

T or F? "Strategy" implies a conscious choice by the organism

F

24

Optimal life history does not mean the best possible, it means

the best of those existing in a certain population under certain environmental conditions
-life history strategy only needs to be "good enough"

25

T or F? Trade-offs mean that it is the overall strategy rather than a single life history trait that determines fitness

T

26

The components of the life history strategy evolve as

an integrated unit

27

Reproductive vale (Vx) of an organism is

the expected reproductive contribution of an individual of age x to the next generation

28

Vx

-changes over the course of the life span
-is closely tied to fitness

29

Lt/Lx is

the probability of an individual of age-class x surviving to a given future age-class

30

Lt/Lx is determined by

the interaction of the Lx and bx columns