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Flashcards in Unit 4 Deck (178):
0

The splanchnic component of the autonomic nervous system innervates all of the following, EXCEPT;
a. viscera
b. glands
c. blood vessels
d. striated muscle.

D. Striated muscle

1

There are at least two neurons, which interpose between the central to somatic effectors. True/False

False - visceral effectors

2

Axons of the primary neurons of the autonomic nervous system are usually unmyelinated and pass to the peripheral ganglia. True/False

False - myelinated

3

The disproportion between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons is lesser in the parasympathetic system than in the sympathetic system. True/False

True
Parasympathetic - 1:15-20
Sympathetic - 1:196

4

The disproportion between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system is 1:____________.

1:15-20

5

Which of the following has the largest disproportion between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons?
a. Somatic efferent nervous system
b. Sympathetic nervous system
c. Parasympathetic nervous system
d. Branchial efferent nervous system

B. Sympathetic nervous system

6

The visceral afferent paths resemble somatic efferent paths.
True/False

False - somatic afferent

7

The parasympathetic preganglionic efferent fibers emerge through all of the following, EXCEPT
a. oculomotor nerve
b. trigeminal nerve
c. vagus
d. first sacral nerve.

B. Trigeminal nerve

8

The sympathetic preganglionic efferent fibers appear through all thoracic and first, second and/or third lumbar spinal nerves, which is known as ____ out flow.

Thoracolumbar

9

What nerves are included in the sympathetic preganglionic efferent fibers out flow?

T1-L2 or L3

10

The enteric nervous system contains all of the following reflex path ways, EXCEPT;
a. striated muscular contraction
b. digestive enzyme secretion
c. peristalsis reflex
d. blood flow

a. striated muscular contraction

11

All of the following carries myelinated preganglionic parasympathetic axons, EXCEPT;
a. facial nerve
b. accessory cranial nerve
c. third sacral spinal nerve
d. trigeminal nerve

D. Trigeminal nerve

12

All of the following are peripheral ganglia of the cranial part of the parasympathetic system, EXCEPT;
a. otic ganglion
b. genicular ganglion
c. submandibular ganglion
d. ciliary ganglion.

B. Genicular ganglion

13

Name the nerve, which carries postganglionic parasympathetic fibers to the constrictor pupillae.

Short ciliary nerve of the ciliary ganglion

14

Name the nerve, which carries facial preganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the main facial trunk.

Chorda tympani

15

Name two branches of the facial nerve, which carry preganglionic parasympathetic fibers.

Chorda tympani
Greater petrosal nerve

16

Which of the following nerves mainly carries the preganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the main facial nerve trunk to the lacrimal gland?
a. Posterior auricular nerve
b. Chorda tympani
c. Greater petrosal nerve
d. Nerve to the stapedius

C. Greater petrosal nerve

17

Name the branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve, which carries preganglionic parasympathetic fibers.

Tympanic nerve

18

Which of the following ganglia is not a peripheral ganglion for the cranial parasympathetic nerve?
a. Genicular ganglion
b. Submandibular ganglion
c. Otic ganglion
d. Pterygopalatine ganglion

A. Genicular ganglion

19

The pulmonary branch of the vagus is bronchiodilator. True/False

False

20

The pelvic splanchnic nerves supply vasodilator fibers to all of the following, EXCEPT;
a. corpora cavernosa
b. corpus spongiosum
c. glans of the penis
d. prepuce

D. Prepuce

21

Name the branch of the facial nerve, which carries the preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers to control small glands in the nasal cavity, palates, and nasal sinuses above the oral cavity.

Greater petrosal nerve

22

Name the branch of the facial nerve, which carries the preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers to control the salivary glands and lingual glands below the oral cavity.

Chorda tympani

23

Name the branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve, which carries the parasympathetic efferent fibers to the parotid gland.

Auriculotemporal nerve

24

The disproportion or ratio of the sympathetic nervous system between the preganglionic and postganglionic fibers is _________.

1:196

25

The sympathetic system innervates all of the following, EXCEPT
A. Sweat glands.
B. The ciliary body
C. The arrectores pilorum.
D. The constrictor pupillae.

D. The constrictor pupillae

26

Name the spinal cord segments where the somata of the preganglionic sympathetic fibers arise.

T1-L2 or L3

27

What is the size in diameter of the axons of the white ramus communicant?

1.5-4 microns

28

Name the spinal cord segments of the outflow of the sympathetic nervous system.

Thoracolumbar region (T1-L1 or L3)

29

How many white rami communicans arise from the thoracic spinal nerve?

11

30

The sympathetic preganglionic fibers pass in the ventral spinal root as myelinated fibers. True/False

True

31

To reach a sympathetic ganglion, the preganglionic sympathetic fibers behave as following, EXCEPT;
A. They synapse in the nearest ganglion.
B. They transverse the nearest ganglia to reach the celiac ganglion to synapse.
C. They transverse the nearest ganglia and ascend or descend in the sympathetic chain to reach another ganglion for synapse.
D. They transverse the sympathetic chain ganglia and reach the effecter organs to synapse.

D. They transverse the sympathetic chain ganglia and reach the effecter organs to synapse.

32

The postganglionic sympathetic fibers return to the spinal nerves through the (white/grey) rami communicans.

Grey ramus communicans

33

Most peripheral nerves contain postganglionic parasympathetic fibers. True/False

False - sympathetic

34

Peripheral autonomic activity is integrated at the brainstem which includes all of the following, EXCEPT;
a. limbic system
b. thalamus
c. hypophysis
d. hypothalamus.

C. Hypophysis

35

The internal carotid plexus communicates laterally with all of the following, EXCEPT;
a. pterygopalatine ganglion
b. ciliary ganglion
c. tympanic branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve
d. abducent nerve.

B. Ciliary ganglion

36

Name the nerve which sends vasomotor rami to the hypophysis cerebri.

Branches of the internal carotid plexus

37

Name the artery on which the right and left sympathetic system connects each other in the cranial cavity.

Anterior communicating artery

38

Name the sympathetic nerve which supplies the carotid body and pharyngeal plexus.

laryngopharyngeal branches of the medial branch of the superior cervical ganglion

39

The largest sympathetic cardiac nerve arises from the ______ ganglia.

middle cervical ganglion or sympathetic trunk

40

Name the sympathetic nerve which supplies the otic ganglion and to the genicular ganglion.

Middle meningeal plexus from the anterior branch of the superior cervical ganglion

41

Name the ganglia, which send branches to enclose the vertebral artery.

middle and cervicothoracic ganglia

42

Name the spinal cord segments which send the preganglionic sympathetic fibers to the head and neck.

T1-T5

43

Name the sympathetic nerve which loops the first part of the subclavian artery

Ansa subclavia from the middle cervical ganglion

44

The thoracic sympathetic trunk passes through the ___ to become lumbar sympathetic trunk.

Crus of the diaphragm or behind the medial arcuate ligament

45

The thoracic sympathetic trunk passes through or posterior to following structures, EXCEPT
a Medial arcuate ligament.
b Right crus of the diaphragm.
c. Lateral arcuate ligament
d. Left crus of the diaphragm.

C. Lateral arcuate ligament - subcostal or T12 nerve

46

The greater splanchnic nerve is formed by branches from the T5 to T9 or T10 ganglia. True/False

True

47

Name the thoracic sympathetic ganglia which form the lesser splanchnic nerve.

T9 and T10 ganglia

48

The lowest splanchnic nerve enters the abdominal cavity through the____.

Crus of the diaphragm or behind the medial arcuate ligament

49

How many lumbar sympathetic ganglia are in the human body on each side?

four

50

All of the following are correct description about the lumbar sympathetic ganglia and trunk, EXCEPT
a. Located in the retroperitoneal space.
b. Located anterolateral to the lumbar vertebra.
c. Located along the lateral margin of the psoas major.
d. Superiorly it is posterior to the medial arcuate ligament.

C located along the lateral margin of the psoas major

51

The first lumbar splanchnic nerve joins the following plexuses, EXCEPT
a. Celiac plexus.
b. Intermesenteric plexus.
c. renal plexus.
d. superior hypogastric plexus.

D Superior hypogastric plexus

52

Name the nerve which joins the hypogastric nerve from the lumbar sympathetic chain ganglia.

fourth lumbar splanchnic nerve

53

Name the artery on which the lower lumbar splanchnic nerves form a plexus.
a. Common iliac artery c. External iliac artery
b. Internal iliac artery d. Obturator nerve

a. Common iliac artery

54

The pelvic sympathetic trunk locates medial to the ventral sacral foramina. True/False

True

55

Which of the following is not a correct description of the pelvic sympathetic trunk with its ganglia?
a It sends grey rami communicantes to the sacral and coccygeal spinal nerves.
b It lies laterally to the ventral sacral foramina.
c It has four or five interconnected ganglia.
d Inferiorly the right and left trunk converge to the ganglion impar.

b It lies laterally to the ventral sacral foramina

56

The ganglion impar is the part of the parasympathetic nervous system. True/False

False
Sympathetic nervous system

57

The heart receives the sympathetic fibers from the
a. T1 – T5
b. T10 – L2
c. T9 – T10
d. T8 – L1

a. T1 – T5

58

The segmental sympathetic nerves to the kidney are;
a. T11 – L2
b. T11 – T12
c. T1 – T5
d. T10 – L1

d. T10 – L1

59

Name the two interconnecting ganglionated plexuses in the enteric nervous system.

Myenteric or Auerbach's plexus
Submucous or Meissner's and Henle's plexus

60

The submucous plexus extends from ____ to the ____.

stomach to the internal anal sphincter

61

Which of the following extends from the stomach to the internal anal sphincter in the enteric nervous system?
a. Celiac plexus
b. Intermesenteric plexus
c. Submucous plexus
d. Myenteric plexus

c. Submucous plexus

62

What do the enteric sensory neurons monitor?

Intestinal wall tension
Intestinal contents
Interneurons link to monitor neurons to change the activity of the intestine

63

The range of the visible wavelength are _______.

400 to 700 nanometers

64

The eye can responds to: (4)

varying luminance
sensitivity of form
Movement
Distance

65

The functions or modalities of an eye include: (5)

Sensitivity to minute changes in luminosity
Dark-adapted scoptic vision
Discrimination of form
Discrimination of movement
Color in light-adapted photopic vision

66

The paired eyes can perform: (3)

Panoramic vision
binocular vision
stereoscopic vision

67

The lateral walls of the two orbits diverge at approximately ____________ degree.

90

68

Name the mucous membrane, which lines the inner surface of the eyelids.

Conjunctiva

69

Name the fibrous tissue extends from the orbital margin to the eyelids to protect the orbital contents.

Orbital septum

70

Name the bone(s), which form(s) the superior wall or roof of the orbit.

Orbital part of the frontal bone
Lesser wing of the sphenoid

71

All of the following form the medial wall of the orbit, EXCEPT
A. ethmoid bone.
B. lacrimal bone.
C. sphenoid bone.
D. palatine bone.

D palatine bone

72

Name the feature, which is located between the lateral and inferior orbital walls.

Inferior orbital fissure

73

The apex of the orbit is in the ____________ of __________ bone.

lesser wing of the sphenoid bone

74

Name the bones, which form the base of the orbital margin.

Frontal
Zygomatic
Maxillary

75

The periorbita is continuous with the dura mater through the ______ and _____.

Optic canal
Superior orbital fissure

76

Name the transparent structure, which is attached to the anterior surface of the eyeball.

bulbar conjunctiva

77

The conjunctival sac is the space bounded by the ______ and ______.

palpebral and bulbar conjunctivae

78

The palpebral portion of the orbicularis oculi is in the connective tissue between the ___ and _____.

Tarsi and the skin of the eyelids

79

The tarsal glands are located in the superior and inferior ______.

tarsi

80

The ciliary glands are located in the margin of the _______.

eyelids

81

Name the enzyme, which is bacteriocidal in the lacrimal fluid. __________

Lysozyme

82

The orbital and palpebral parts of the lacrimal gland are divided by _______.

Tendon of the Levator palpebra superioris

83

Name the structure which conveys the lacrimal fluid from the lacrimal sac to the inferior nasal meatus.

Nasolacrimal duct

84

The outer fibrous layer of the eyeball is consisted of the ______ and _____.

Sclera
Cornea

85

Name the structure which covers the anterior one sixth of the outer fibrous layer of the eyeball.

Cornea

86

The vascular layer of the eyeball is called as _______.

Uvea

87

The vascular layer of the eyeball is consists of the _____, _____ and ____.

Choroid
Ciliary body
Iris

88

Within the choroid, larger vessels are located internally. True/False

False
Externally

89

The ciliary body is connected anteriorly with ______ and posteriorly with ______.

iris
choroid

90

The anterior chamber of the eye is the space between the _____ anteriorly and ______ posteriorly.

cornea
iris and pupil

91

Sympathetic responses to the pupil are faster than the parasympathetical responses. True/False

False

92

Name the single layer of cells that reinforce the light-absorbing property of the choroid in reducing the scattering of light in the eyeball. _______________

Pigment cell layer of the optic part of the retina

93

Name two features on the fundus of the eyeball.

Optic disc or optic papilla
Macula lutea

94

The optic disc is sensitive to color. True/False

False it is the blind spot

95

Name the feature that is specialized for acuity of vision. ____

Fovea centralis of the Macula lutea

96

The functional optic part of the retina terminates anteriorly along the ___________.

Ora serrata

97

Name the main artery that supplies the retina. _______ of __________

Central artery of the ophthalmic artery

98

Name the refractive media of the eyeball which pass through the light waves to the retina, in sequence.

Cornea
Aqueous humor
Lens
vitreous humor
Retina

99

The cornea is innervated by the ____ of ____.

long ciliary nerve of the nasociliary nerve of the ophthalmic nerve

100

Name two veins through which the aqueous humor is drained through the limbal plexus.

vorticose vein of the superior and inferior ophthalmic veins
anterior ciliary vein of the muscular veins

101

The lens of the eye is anchored by the ___ to the ciliary body.

Zonular fibers aka suspensory ligament of the ciliary body

102

Name the nerve which causes the near vision with the ciliary muscle constriction

Parasympathetic nerve

103

Name two main arteries that supply the eye

Ophthalmic artery of internal carotid artery
Maxillary artery of external carotid

104

The central vein of the retina drains into the _______ or ________.

Cavernous sinus
Superior ophthalmic vein

105

The paralysis of the superior tarsal muscle may cause the ________.

Ptosis or drooping of the superior eyelid

106

The glaucoma is caused by decrease drainage of aqueous humor through ___________.

Sclera venous sinus

107

Name the innermost layer of the choroid

Pigmented epithelium

108

Name the entire pathway of the parasympathetic secretomotor nerve from the cranial nucleus to the lacrimal gland in sequence.

Superior salivatory nucleus
Nervus intermedius of the facial nerve
Genicular ganglion
Greater petrosal nerve
Nerve to the pterygoid canal
Pterygopalatine ganglion
Ganglionic branch of the maxillary nerve
Maxillary nerve
Zygomatic nerve
Zygomaticotemporal nerve
Lacrimal nerve of the ophthalmic nerve
Lacrimal gland

109

Name the entire pathway of the sympathetic postsynaptic motor nerve to the lacrimal gland in sequence.

Superior cervical ganglion
Internal carotid nerve
Internal carotid plexus
Deep petrosal nerve
Nerve to the pterygoid canal
Pterygopalatine ganglion
Ganglionic branch of the maxillary nerve
Maxillary nerve
Zygomatic nerve
Zygomaticotemporal nerve
Lacrimal nerve of the ophthalmic nerve
Lacrimal gland

110

Name the arteries which supply the auricle.

Posterior auricular artery of the external carotid
Superficial temporal artery of the external carotid

111

Name the nerve which innervates the cranial surface of the auricle.

Upper cranial surface: Posterior branch of the great auricular nerve
Lower cranial surface: lesser occipital nerve (C2 C3)

112

Lymph from the superior half of the cranial surface of the auricle drains into the:
a. superficial parotid lymph nodes.
b. mastoid lymph nodes.
c. superficial cervical lymph nodes.
d. deep cervical lymph nodes.

a. superficial parotid lymph nodes.
b. mastoid lymph nodes.
d. deep cervical lymph nodes.

113

Name the gland which produces earwax.

Ceruminous glands

114

What is the size in diameter of the tympanic membrane?

About 1 cm

115

The tympanic membrane is the partition between the _____ and ____.

External Acoustic Meatus
Tympanic cavity of the middle ear

116

Name the shallow central peak of the tympanic membrane.

Umbo

117

The tympanic membrane faces to anterior, inferior and laterally. True/False

True

118

The superior to the lateral process of the malleus attachment on the tympanic membrane is called ______.

Pars flaccid (flaccid part)

119

The remainder of the tympanic membrane besides the pars flaccid is called ______.

Pars tensa (tense part)

120

The external surface of the tympanic membrane is innervated by:
a. auricular nerve. b. tympanic nerve.
c. chorda tympanic. d. caroticotympanic nerve.

A. Auricular nerve of the vagus nerve

121

The internal surface of the tympanic membrane is innervated by the
a. auricular nerve.
b. tympanic nerve.
c. chorda tympanic
d. caroticotympanic nerve.

B. Tympanic nerve of the Glossopharyngeal nerve

122

Name the features on the medial wall of the tympanic cavity features.

Promontory of the labyrinthine wall
Oval window
Round window

123

The space superior to the tympanic membrane in the tympanic cavity is called _____.

Epitympanic recess

124

All of the following are the contents of the middle ear, EXCEPT
a. malleus.
b. incus.
c. stapes
d. modiolus

D. Modiolus

125

Which of the following indicates the floor of the tympanic cavity?
a. tegmental wall
b. jugular wall
c. carotid wall
d. mastoid wall

B. Jugular wall

126

Name the arteries which supply the pharyngotympanic tube.

Ascending pharyngeal artery of the external carotid artery
Middle meningeal artery of the maxillary artery
Artery of the pterygoid canal of the maxillary artery

127

The auditory ossicles transmit the sound wave from ____ to ____ leading to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth.

Tympanic membrane
Oval window (fenestra vestibule)

128

The ossicles are covered with regular osteogenic periosteum.
True/False

False

129

Name the part of the malleus that attaches to the flaccid part of the tympanic membrane.

Neck of the malleous

130

Which of the following describes the umbo correctly?
a. Tip of the handle of the malleus
b. Neck of the malleus
c. Tip o the handle of the incus
d. Neck of the stapes

a. Tip of the handle of the malleus

131

The lenticular process of the incus articulates with ____________.

The stapes

132

The tensor tympanic inserts into ___________.

Handle of the malleus

133

The head of the malleus lies in the _____________.

Epitympanic recess

134

The base of the stapes is considerably smaller than the tympanic membrane, as a result the vibratory force of the stapes is increased approximately _____ times over that of the tympanic membrane.

10

135

The auditory ossicles increase the force of the vibrations transmitted from the tympanic membrane. True/False

True but they decrease the amplitude

136

The tensor tympani arises from ____, and inserts to _____.

O: handle of the malleus
I: cartilaginous part of the pharyngotympanic tube, greater wing of the sphenoid, and petrous portion of the temporal bone

137

The tensor tympani is innervated by the __________.

Nerve to the medial pterygoid

138

Name the wall where the pyramidal eminence is for the stapedius muscle emergence.

Posterior wall of the tympanic cavity

139

The otic capsule of the internal ear contains _____, _____, and _____.

Cochlea
Vestibule
Semicircular ducts

140

The cochlea is the shell-shaped part of the bony labyrinth that contains _____ for the hearing.

Cochlear duct

141

Name the bony core of the cochlea.

Modiolus

142

The spiral canal of the cochlea begins at the ______ and makes ___ turns around the bony core.

Vestibule
2.5 turns

143

The bony core of the cochlea is called ___________.

Modiolus

144

The large basal turn of the cochlea produces the _______ on the labyrinthine wall.

Promontory

145

The large basal turn of the cochlea produces _____, which is part of the labyrinthine wall of the tympanic cavity.

The promontory

146

Name the communicating feature between the basal turn of the cochlea and the subarachnoid space superior to the jugular foramen.

Cochlear aqueduct

147

Name the structure, which close the round window at the basal turn of the cochlea.

Secondary tympanic membrane

148

The vestibule of the bony labyrinth is a small oval chamber that contains the _____ and _____.

Utricle
Saccule

149

Name the feature, which communicates the vestibule to the posterior cranial fossa.

Aqueduct of the vestibule

150

Name the feature, which transmits the endolymphatic duct.

Vestibular aqueduct

151

How many openings from the semicircular canals to the vestibule?

Five

152

The membranous labyrinth composed of_____ and _____.

Communicating sacs and ducts

153

The vestibular labyrinth contains two small communicating sacs which are known as_____ and _____.

Utricle
Saccule

154

Name the spiral thickening of the periosteal lining of the cochlear canal, which secures the cochlear duct to the spiral canal of the cochlea.

The spiral ligament

155

Name the feature where the semicircular ducts open through openings.

The utricle

156

Name the feature where the endolymphatic duct arises.

Utricosaccular duct

157

Name the feature which connects the saccule to the cochlear duct, as a uniting duct.

Ductus reuneins

158

The primary sensory neurons of the cochlear ampulae are in _____ ganglia, which are in the internal acoustic meatus.

Vestibular

159

The cochlear duct is a spiral tube, which is firmly suspended across the cochlear canal between the _____ on the external wall of the cochlear canal and the osseous spiral lamina of the modiolus respectively.

Spiral ligament

160

Name the feature of the semilunar communication at the apex of the cochlea between two perilymph-filled spiral canals.

Helicotrema

161

Waves of hydraulic pressure created in the perilymph of the vestibule by the vibration of the base of the stapes ascend to the apex of the cochlea through the _____.

Scala vestibule

162

Waves of hydraulic pressure pass through the apex of the cochlear and then descend back to the basal turn of the cochlea through _____ .

Scala tympani

163

Name the receptor organ of auditory stimuli.

Spiral organ of Corti

164

The receptor organ of auditory stimuli is situated on the _____.

Basilar membrane

165

The receptor organ of auditory stimuli is overlaid by _____.

Gelatinous tectorial membrane

166

Untreated auricular hematoma might result in the _____ or ____.

Cauliflower ear
Boxer's ear

167

How do you pull the helix to observe the adult’s tympanic membrane for the otoscopic examination?

Posterosuperiorly (up, out and back)

168

An earache and a bulging red tympanic membrane may indicate a sign of _____

Otitis media

169

Infection of the mastoid antrum and mastoid cells from a middle ear infection might cause inflammation of the mastoid process known as _____.

Masoiditis

170

Paralysis of the stapedius is associated with excessive acuteness of hearing called _____ or _____.

Hyperacusis
Hyperacusia

171

The hyperacusis results from uninhibited movements of the _____.

Stapes

172

Motion sickness results from discordance between ______ and _______ stimulation.

Vestibular
Visual

173

The aqueous humor drains directly into the:
A. Sclera venous sinus.
B. Limbal plexus.
C. Vorticose veins.
D. Anterior ciliary veins.

A. Sclera venous sinus

174

The retinal detachment usually results from the fluid accumulation between ___ and ___ layers of the retina.

Neural layer
Pigment layer

175

The papilledema results from increased intracranial pressure through the subarachnoid space around the optic nerve. True/False

True

176

Horner syndrome results from interruption of ________________.

A cervical sympathetic trunk

177

The Honer syndrome includes all of the following, EXCEPT
A. miosis.
B. ptosis.
C. vasodilation.
D. hydrosis.

D. Hydrosis