Week 2 - Neuro Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 2 - Neuro Anatomy Deck (93):
1

hyoid bone

thin bone, superior to thyroid cartilage

2

thyroid cartilage

larger cartilage, Adam's apple, between hyoid bone and cricoid cartilage

3

cricoid cartilage

thinner cartilage, inferior to thyroid cartilage

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thyrohyoid membrane

between hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage

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cricothryoid membrane

between thyroid cartilage and cricoid cartilage

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jugular notch

notch on superior edge of manubrium, where sternocleidomastoid attaches

7

platysma muscle

in superficial fascia, mandible to clavicle, cervical branch of facial nerve (CN VII)

8

investing layer of cervical fascia

deep to platysma, encircles neck, encases sternocleidomastoid and trapezius

9

sternocleidomastoid muscle

medial clavicle to mastoid (two heads on clavicle), left side turns head right and vice versa, accessory nerve CN XI

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posterior triangle of neck

post - trapezius, ant - sternocleidomastoid, infer - clavicle

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anterior triangle of neck

post - sternocleidomastoid, ant - midline, sup - mandible

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superficial veins of neck

external jugular vein, anterior jugular vein, retromandibular vein

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cervical plexus

cutaneous sensory nerves, cervical nerves 2 / 3 / 4, posterior to sternocleidomastoid, branches - lesser occipital, great auricular, transverse cervical, supraclavicular

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accessory nerve CN XI

deep to sternocleidomastoid, supplies sternocleidomastoid and trapezius

15

strap muscles

sternohyoid, omohyoid, sternothyroid, thyrohyoid

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sternohyoid muscle

sternum to hyoid, ansa cervicalis (motor branch of cervical plexus)

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omohyoid muscle

hyoid to scapula, two bellies connected by intermediate tendon, ansa cervicalis (motor branch of cervical plexus)

18

sternothyroid muscle

sternum to thyroid cartilage, ansa cervicalis (motor branch of cervical plexus)

19

thyrohyoid muscle

thyroid cartilage to hyoid bone, ansa cervicalis (motor branch of cervical plexus)

20

ansa cervicalis nerve

motor branch of cervical plexus (cervical nerves 1 / 2 / 3), loops anterior to carotid sheath

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carotid sheath

internal jugular vein, carotid artery, vagus nerve

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external carotid artery

branch anteriorly off common carotid artery, near mandible, branches in neck

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internal carotid artery

branch posteriorly off common carotid artery, near mandible, branches in cranial cavity

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right common carotid artery

branch superiorly off brachiocephalic trunk

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left common carotid artery

second branch superiorly off aortic arch

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internal jugular vein

into subclavian vein

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vagus nerve

large nerve, in carotid sheath, posterior to carotid artery, laryngeal nerves branches

28

bifercation of common carotid into internal / external carotid arteries

glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) sensory to carotid sinus (pressure receptor) and carotid body (chemoreceptor)

29

lymphnodes

jugulodigastric node and deep cervical nodes (around internal jugular vein)

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superior thyroid artery

first branch of external carotid going toward mandible, to superior thyroid gland

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superior laryngeal artery

branch of superior thyroid artery, pierces thyrohyoid membrane to supply larynges

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lingual artery

second branch of external carotid going toward mandible, supplies tongue

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facial artery

third branch of carotid going toward mandible, supplies face, anastamoses with ophthalmic artery

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superior laryngeal nerve

comes anteriorly from deep to carotid artery, branch of vagus nerve, internal branch supplies larynx superior to vocal cords, external branch supplies inferior pharyngeal constrictor and cricothyroid muscles

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internal branch of superior laryngeal nerve

branch of superior laryngeal nerve -> branchof vagus nerve, supplies larynx above vocal cords

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external branch of superior laryngeal nerve

branch of superior laryngeal nerve -> branch of vagus nerve, supplies pharyngeal constrictor and cricothyroid muscles

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sympathetic trunk

deep to carotid sheath, middle and superior cervical ganglia connected to spinal nerves by grey rami

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grey rami

preganglionic axons from spinal nerves to synapse with postganglionic cells in cervical sympathetic ganglia, postganglionic axons follow internal carotid into cranial cavity

39

prevertebral (retropharyngeal) space

between prevertebral and alar / buccopharyngeal fascia, deep to esophagus, infections in pharynx can spread to CNS via prevertebral space

40

cricothyroid ligament

cricoid cartilage to thyroid cartilage, location of cricothyrotomy / tracheotomy to relieve acute respiratory obstruction

41

thymus gland

deep to manubrium, two lobes, derived from 3rd pharyngeal pouch, lymphocyte precursor cells -> circulating T-lymphocytes, decreases with age

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right and left brachiocephalic veins

formed by union of internal jugular vein and subclavian vein, join to form the superior vena cava

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superior vena cava

formed by union of right and left brachiocephalic veins, dumps into right atrium

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brachiocephalic trunk / artery

right side only, first branch of aortic arch, gives rise to right common carotid and right subclavian artery

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left common carotid artery

second branch off aortic arch

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left subclavian artery

third branch off aortic arch

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thoracic duct

on left, anterior to vertebral artery and anterior scalene, lymphatic drainage into left subclavian vein near left internal jugular vein

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phrenic nerve

anterior surface of anterior scalene muscle, lateral to carotid sheath, cervical nerves 3 / 4 / 5, diaphragm

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anterior scalene muscle

anterior to subclavian artery and brachial plexus, cervical vertebra to first rib, supplied by cervical nerves 3 / 4 / 5 / 6, subclavian vein passes anterior

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middle scalene

posterior to subclavian artery and brachial plexus, cervical vertebra to first rib, cervical nerves 3 / 4 / 5 / 6

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subclavian artery

right - branch of brachiocephalic artery, left - branch of aortic arch, passes between clavicle and first rib

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internal thoracic artery

only inferior branch of subclavian artery, supplies lateral sternum in thoracic cavity

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vertebral artery

first superior branch of subclavian artery, supplies cranial cavity via foramen magnum

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thyrocervical trunk

second superior branch of subclavian artery, gives rise to inferior thyroid (medial), transverse cervical, suprascapular (lateral)

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branches of thyrocervical trunk from medial to lateral

inferior thyroid artery, transverse cervical artery, suprascapular artery

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inferior thyroid artery

most medial branch of thyrocervical trunk, supplies inferior thyroid gland and parathyroid glands

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transverse cervical artery

middle branch of thyrocervical trunk, supplies trapezius with accessory nerve

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suprascapular artery

most lateral branch of thyrocervical trunk, supplies suprascapularis and infrascapularis muscles, anastamoses with circumflex scapular artery, travels with suprascapular nerve

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thyroid gland

around trachea, inferior to thyroid cartilage, develops from floor of mouth, isthmus between tracheal rings 2 and 4

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esophagus

muscular tube posterior to trachea

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parathryoid glands

posterior surface of thyroid gland superior from 4th pharyngeal pouch, inferior from 3rd pharyngeal pouch

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recurrent laryngeal nerve

posterior and medial to thyroid gland (can be injured during thyroid surgery), branch of vagus nerve, supplies intrinsic muscles of larynx, loops under aortic arch on left and subclavian artery on right

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submandibular gland

below mandible at angle, submandibular duct at posterior margin of mylohyoid

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mylohyoid muscle

runs laterally under chin from mandible to midline raphe, floor of mouth, from 1st pharyngeal arch, mylohyoid nerve of CN V3 (mandibular trigeminal)

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anterior belly digastric muscle

superficial to mylohyoid, inside of chin to hyoid bone (connected by fibrous loop), attached to posterior belly by tendon, innervated by V3 (mandibular trigeminal)

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hypoglossal nerve CN XII

lateral to external carotid, enters oral cavity behind mylohyoid, motor to tongue

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oculomotor nerve CN III

enters orbit in middle, of nerves, supplies superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, levator palpebrae superiois, parasympathetic to ciliary muscle and constrictor of pupil

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nasociliary nerve

medial branch of ophthalamic nerve V1, deep to levator palpebrae and superior rectus, sensory to eyeball, ethmoid sinus / nasal cavity / skin of dorsal nose

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periorbita

periosteal layer that lines orbit

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frontal nerve

middle branch of ophthalamic nerve V1, divides into supraorbital nerve and supratrochlear nerve, sensory

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supraorbital nerve

through supraorbital foramen, lateral branch of frontal nerve - branch of ophthalamic nerve V1

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three branches of ophthalamic nerve

lacrimal nerve, frontal nerve, nasociliary nerve

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supratrochlear nerve

medial branch of frontal nerve - branch of ophthalamic nerve V1, sensory

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lacrimal nerve

lateral branch of ophthalamic nerve V1, sensory to upper eyelid and adjacent forehead

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lacrimal gland

lateral in superior orbit

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levator palpebrae superioris muscle

anular ring to upper eyelid, elevated eyelid, CN III - oculomotor

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superior rectus muscle

anular ring to anterior superior eyeball, turns eye upward, CN III - oculomotor

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superior oblique muscle

anular ring to tendon in medial orbit to superior posterior lateral eyeball, turns eye medially and downward, CN IV trochlear, passes under superior rectus

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medial rectus muscle

anular ring to anterior medial eyeball, turns eye medially, CN III oculomotor

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lateral rectus muscle

anular ring to anterior lateral eyeball, turns eye outward laterally, CN VI abducens

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inferior rectus muscle

anular ring to anterior inferior eyeball, turns eye downward, CN III oculomotor

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inferior oblique muscle

medial orbital floor to posteriolateral inferior eyeball, turns eye upward and medial, CN III oculomotor, passes over inferior rectus

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anterior ethmoidal nerve

branch of nasociliary to ethmoid sinus / nasal cavity, sensory, medial in orbit, V1 origin

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posterior ethmoidal nerve

branch of nasociliary nerve to ethmoid sinus / nasal cavity, sensory, medial in orbit, V1 origin

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long ciliary nerve

branches of nasociliary nerve to eyeball, sensory, V1 origin, does not pass through ciliary ganglion

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ophthalmic artery

branch of internal carotid, through optic canal, supplies all structures in orbit, associated with nasociliary nerve

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trochlear nerve CN IV

thin, supplies superior oblique medial in orbit / canal, passes through superior orbital fissure, if damaged can't turn eye down and medially

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abducens nerve CN VI

lateral in orbit, supplies lateral rectus, passes through superior orbital fissure, if damaged can't turn eye out

89

optic nerve CN II

optic canal, to lateral geniculate nucleus in diencephalon, nerve cell bodies in retina

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ciliary ganglion

on superior surface of optic nerve, postganglionic parasympathetic cell bodies of oculomotor nerve to ciliary muscle and constrictor of pupil

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short ciliary nerve

postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from ciliary ganglion to ciliary muscle and constrictor of pupil (smooth muscle), also contains sensory from CN V to eyeball

92

orbital septum

connective tissue between inferiortarsal / superiortarsal plates and periorbita

93

medial and lateral palpebral ligaments

support upper and lower eyelids, connect tarsal plates to bone at lateral and medial corners of the eye